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Measurement of fish steroids in water provides a non-invasive alternative to measurement in blood samples, offering the following advantages: zero or minimal intervention (i.e. no anaesthetic, bleeding or handling stress); results not being biased by sampling stress; repeat measurements on the same fish; the possibility of making non-lethal measurements on(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that ovulatory goldfish synthesize and release a variety of steroids into the water, where some of them function as sex pheromones. Among the steroids which have been measured are free androstenedione, testosterone, 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P), 17 alpha,20 beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one(More)
This study demonstrates that in addition to using the maturational steroid hormone 17,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) as a potent sex pheromone, the goldfish uses its sulfated metabolite 17,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one 20-sulfate (17,20 beta-P-20S). As measured by electro-olfactogram recording (EOG), the goldfish olfactory epithelium(More)
Dab (Limanda limanda) ovarian fragments were incubated in vitro with either [4,7-3H]pregnenolone or 17 alpha-hydroxy[1,2,6,7-3H]progesterone to investigate the pattern of steroidogenesis. A major enzyme found in the dab ovary was 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Among the steroids that were tentatively identified in ovarian incubates were 17 alpha,20(More)
We show that reproductively mature male sea lampreys release a bile acid that acts as a potent sex pheromone, inducing preference and searching behavior in ovulated female lampreys. The secreted bile acid 7alpha,12alpha,24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate was released in much higher amounts relative to known vertebrate steroid pheromones and may be(More)
The androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) plays an important role in reproductive physiology and behaviour in male teleosts. In the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the plasma concentrations of 11-KT are related to the breeding status of the fish. Sticklebacks are relatively small (generally less than 1g) and in order to obtain sufficient(More)
Fish behaviourists are increasingly turning to non-invasive measurement of steroid hormones in holding water, as opposed to blood plasma. When some of us met at a workshop in Faro, Portugal, in September, 2007, we realised that there were still many issues concerning the application of this procedure that needed resolution, including: Why do we measure(More)
The problem of finding good lower bounds on the size of the largest bipartite subgraph of a given graph has received a fair amount of attention. In particular, improving a result of Erd˝ os ([10]; see also [11] for related problems), Edwards [9] proved the essentially best possible assertion that every graph with n vertices and m edges has a bipartite(More)
Dandruff is a common problem in approximately 30% of the world's population. Reports in the literature regarding treatment of this condition with various antidandruff shampoos usually report the level of active ingredient within the formulation. However, we propose that a more important parameter relating to antidandruff efficacy is the amount of active(More)
We report the development and validation of a novel in vivo biomarker test for waterborne androgens. During breeding, male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) manufacture a glue protein, spiggin, in their kidneys that they use to build their nests. Spiggin production is under the control of androgens. Until now, however, it has only been possible to(More)