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Organotypic cultures of the lobster (Homarus gammarus) stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) were used to assess changes in membrane properties of neurons of the pyloric motor pattern-generating network in the long-term absence of neuromodulatory inputs to the stomatogastric ganglion (STG). Specifically, we investigated decentralization-induced changes in(More)
We propose a new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that builds upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system. Our Proof of Activity protocol offers good security against possibly practical attacks on Bitcoin, and has a relatively low penalty in terms of network communication and storage space.
Here we report a double labelling method for correlative confocal and electron microscopy (EM) which allows selective characterisation of structural relationships between two single identified neurons in the same preparation. Using the lobster stomatogastric nervous system, we labelled pairs of identified, synaptically-connected neurons by intracellular(More)
We study cryptocurrency protocols that do not make use of Proof of Work. Such protocols commonly rely on Proof of Stake, i.e. on mechanisms that extend voting power to the stakeholders of the system. We offer analysis of existing protocols that have a substantial amount of popularity. We then present our novel pure Proof of Stake protocols, and argue that(More)
We consider a prediction market in which all aspects are controlled by market forces, in particular the correct outcomes of events are decided by the market itself rather than by trusted arbiters. This kind of a decentralized prediction market can sustain betting on events whose outcome may remain unresolved for a long or even unlimited time period , and(More)
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