Alex McDougall

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In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 averts aneuploidy by delaying anaphase onset until chromosomes align. Here we show that depletion of Mad2 in meiosis I mouse oocytes induced an increased incidence of aneuploidy. Proteolysis of cyclin B and securin commenced earlier in Mad2-depleted oocytes, resulting in a shortened duration of meiosis I.(More)
BACKGROUND Internal calcium waves and oscillations are now recognized as universal features of cellular activation, but their exact role remains uncertain. In mammalian and ascidian eggs, a large, sperm-triggered calcium activation wave crosses the egg at fertilization, followed by a series of periodic increases in intracellular calcium concentration(More)
Mad2 is a pivotal component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) which inhibits anaphase promoting complex/cyclo-some (APC/C) activity by sequestering Cdc20 thereby regulating the destruction of securin and cyclin B. During mitosis, spindle depolymerisation induces a robust Mad2-dependent arrest due to inhibition of securin and cyclin B destruction. In(More)
Cyclin B1, the regulatory component of M phase-promoting factor (MPF), is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition in an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-dependent process. MPF activity is stable in eggs, and a sperm-triggered Ca(2+) signal is needed to promote cyclin degradation. In frogs, a single Ca(2+) spike promotes cell cycle(More)
Disjunction of pairs of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division (MI) requires anaphase-promoting complex (APC)-mediated activation of separase in budding yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, but not Xenopus laevis. It is not clear which model best fits the mammalian system. Here we show that homologue disjunction in mouse oocytes is dependent(More)
Endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-related sequences (enFeLV) are a family of proviral elements found in domestic cats and their close relatives. These elements can recombine with exogenous, infectious FeLVs of subgroup A (FeLV-A), giving rise to host range variants of FeLV-B. We found that a subset of defective enFeLV proviruses is highly expressed in(More)
In ascidian tadpoles, metamorphosis is triggered by a polarized wave of apoptosis, via mechanisms that are largely unknown. We demonstrate that the MAP kinases ERK and JNK are both required for the wave of apoptosis and metamorphosis. By employing a gene-profiling-based approach, we identified the network of genes controlled by either ERK or JNK activity(More)
Ascidians eggs are spawned with their cytoskeleton and organelles organized along a preexisting animal-vegetal axis. Fertilization triggers a spectacular microfilament-dependant cortical contraction that causes the relocalization of preexisting cytoplasmic domains and the creation of new domains in the lower part of the vegetal hemisphere. We have(More)
Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their(More)
In I 882 Shepherd reported three cases of fracture of the posterior process of the talus, which he had found while working in the dissecting room. In each case the fragment of hone consisted of the posterior part of the tubercle of the talus lateral to the groove for the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus, and had attached to it the posterior fasciculus(More)