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In the rodent primary somatosensory cortex, the configuration of whiskers and sinus hairs on the snout and of receptor-dense zones on the paws is topographically represented as discrete modules of layer IV granule cells (barrels) and thalamocortical afferent terminals. The role of neural activity, particularly activity mediated by NMDARs(More)
The 2,160,837-base pair genome sequence of an isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media, contains 2236 predicted coding regions; of these, 1440 (64%) were assigned a biological role. Approximately 5% of the genome is composed of insertion sequences that may contribute to(More)
Computational modelling has suggested that at least two counteracting forces are required for establishing topographic maps. Ephrin-family proteins are required for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral topographic mapping, but the opposing forces have not been well characterized. Wnt-family proteins are recently discovered axon guidance cues. We find(More)
The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the other completely sequenced genomes identified genes specific(More)
Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. Key virulence genes are found on plasmids (extra-chromosomal, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules) pXO1 (ref. 2) and pXO2 (ref. 3). To identify additional genes that might contribute to virulence, we analysed the complete sequence of the chromosome of B. anthracis(More)
Wnt proteins are conserved axon guidance cues that control growth cone navigation. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that mediate growth cone turning in response to Wnts are unknown. We previously showed that Wnt-Frizzled signaling directs spinal cord commissural axons to turn anteriorly after midline crossing through an attractive mechanism.(More)
Hormones and purine nucleosides and nucleotides induced cultured bone cells to transform transiently from a spherical to a stellate shape. Cytochalasin B also induced the transformation. The change was blocked by colchicine and vinblastine, but not by lumicolchicine or cycloheximide. This morphologic transformation may provide a dynamic model of hormone(More)
BACKGROUND Prostatic oxidative stress (OS) is androgen-regulated and a key event in the development of prostate cancer (PC). Thus, reducing prostatic OS is an attractive target for PC prevention strategies. We sought to determine if the individual's prostatic OS status can be determined by examining the OS in surrogate androgen regulated tissues from the(More)