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Antimicrobial peptides are found in both myeloid cells and mucosal tissues of many vertebrates and invertebrates. These peptides are predicted to operate as a first-line host defense mechanism exerting broad-spectrum activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, and enveloped viruses. We report the characterization of a novel 25-residue linear(More)
Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a risk factor for community-acquired and nosocomial infections. We screened 230 donors of diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and identified 62 (27%) whose nasal secretions were colonized by S. aureus. In 18 donors in whom the various regions of the nasal luminal surface were separately(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are proposed to act as the first line of mucosal host defense by exerting broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against pathogenic microbes. Pleurocidin, a new 25-residue linear antimicrobial peptide, was recently isolated from the skin secretions of winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus). The present study identifies the cDNA and(More)
Retrocyclins (ancestral human theta-defensins) are cyclic antimicrobial octadecapeptides that interfere with viral uptake and protect human cells from infection by T- and M-tropic strains of HIV-1 in vitro. As are other theta-defensins, retrocyclins are lectins that bind gp120, CD4, and galactosylceramide-all of which are implicated in HIV-1 uptake.(More)
The host defense roles of neutrophil elastase in a porcine skin wound chamber model were explored. Analysis of wound fluid by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and bacterial overlay confirmed that the neutrophil-derived protegrins constituted the major stable antimicrobial polypeptide in the wound fluid. The application to the(More)
Minimally manipulated nasal secretions, an accessible form of airway surface fluid, were tested against indigenous and added bacteria by using CFU assays. Antimicrobial activity was found to vary between donors and with different target bacteria and was markedly diminished by dilution of the airway secretions. Donor-to-donor differences in electrophoresis(More)
θ-Defensins, the only cyclic peptides of animal origin, have been isolated from the leukocytes of rhesus macaques and baboons. Their biogenesis is unusual because each peptide is an 18-residue chimera formed by the head-to-tail splicing of nonapeptides derived from two separate precursors. θ-Defensins have multiple arginines and a ladder-like tridisulfide(More)
Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) is a member of the beta-defensin family of antibiotic peptides found in the tracheal mucosa of the cow. TAP gene expression in the bovine airway is inducible by lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory mediators, suggesting that it functions to protect the upper airway from infection. Limited availability of bovine TAP (bTAP)(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are innate host defense molecules that have a direct effect on bacteria, fungi and enveloped viruses. They are found in evolutionarily diverse species ranging from prokaryotes and plants to invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Humans express several families of antimicrobial peptides in myeloid cells and on various epithelial surfaces(More)