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Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary unilateral contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve, usually starting around the eyes before progressing inferiorly to the cheek, mouth, and neck. Its prevalence is 9.8 per 100,000 persons with an average age of onset of 44 years. The accepted pathophysiology of HFS(More)
The multimodality theranostic system, which can integrate two or more different therapeutic modalities and multimodal imaging agents into a nanoentity, shows great promising prospects for the cancer treatment. Herein, we developed an efficient and novel strategy to synthesize hybrid anisotropic nanoparticles (HANs) with intrinsic multimodal theranostic(More)
Natural biopolymer based multifunctional nanomaterials are perfect candidates for multimodality imaging and therapeutic applications. Conventional methods of building multimodal imaging probe require either cross-linking manners to increase its in vivo stability or attach a target module to realize targeted imaging. In this study, the intrinsic(More)
OPINION STATEMENT The devastation caused by acute ischemic strokes is evident in every intensive care unit across the world. Although there is no doubt that progress has been made in treatment, it has been slow to come. With the emergence of new technologies in imaging, thrombolysis and endovascular intervention, the treatment modalities of acute ischemic(More)
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a major stabilizer of the knee joint. It is the most common ligament injured in the knee, particularly in athletes, and has been reported to be torn in 7.9% of all knee injuries.2 The MCL has a complex, layered anatomy with multiple insertions and functions. Minor trauma can cause tearing of the superficial portion(More)
OBJECTIVE Following an initial response of brain metastases to Gamma Knife radiosurgery, regrowth of the enhancing lesion as detected on MRI may represent either radiation necrosis (a treatment-related inflammatory change) or recurrent tumor. Differentiation of radiation necrosis from tumor is vital for management decision making but remains difficult by(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma lesions in the brainstem can be difficult to distinguish radiographically and clinically from cavernous malformations. However, the treatment modalities and clinical course of these two diseases differ considerably. We report two cases of melanoma presenting as brainstem hemorrhages. CASE DESCRIPTION A 69-year-old male was found to(More)
Open access is sometimes seen as promoting rail competition effectively when infrastructure geography and market demand restricts routings — e.g. in Europe. European railways are passenger-oriented, highly scheduled, poorly standardized, and lines serve specialized functions. Conversely, American railroads are freight-oriented, flexible, and highly(More)
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