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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
BACKGROUND Plants have evolved efficient mechanisms to combat pathogen attack. One of the earliest responses to attempted pathogen attack is the generation of oxidative burst that can trigger hypersensitive cell death. This is called the hypersensitive response (HR) and is considered to be a major element of plant disease resistance. The HR is thought to(More)
BACKGROUND Avirulent pathogens elicit a battery of plant defenses, often accompanied by collapse of the challenged cells. In soybean cells, sustained accumulation of H2O2 from an oxidative burst cues localized host cell death. Such hypersensitive cell death appears to be an active process, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying cellular(More)
Mitochondria constitute a major source of reactive oxygen species and have been proposed to integrate the cellular responses to stress. In animals, it was shown that mitochondria can trigger apoptosis from diverse stimuli through the opening of MTP, which allows the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor and translocation of cytochrome c into the cytosol.(More)
Salt imposes immediate problems for plant cells, such as osmotic stress, impaired ion homeostasis and sodium toxicity, followed by a secondary oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we analyzed the production of ROS during salt stress. We show that salt stress triggered plasma membrane internalization, resulting in the(More)
Adaptation to stress requires removal of existing molecules from various cellular compartments and replacing them with new ones. The transport of materials to and from the specific compartments involved in the recycling and deposition of macromolecules is carried out by an intracellular vesicle trafficking system. Here, we report the isolation of a vesicle(More)
Intracellular vesicle trafficking performs essential functions in eukaryotic cells, such as membrane trafficking and delivery of molecules to their destinations. A major endocytotic route in plants is vesicle trafficking to the vacuole that plays an important role in plant salt tolerance. The final step in this pathway is mediated by the AtVAMP7C family of(More)
Botrytis cinerea is a non-specific necrotrophic pathogen that attacks more than 200 plant species. In contrast to biotrophs, the necrotrophs obtain their nutrients by first killing the host cells. Many studies have shown that infection of plants by necrosis-causing pathogens induces a systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides protection against(More)
Protein kinases play a central role in signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. A highly conserved group of kinases, termed mitogen-activated-protein kinases (MAPKs) was shown to mediate many diverse stress responses. In plants, MAPKs were shown to function in resistance responses to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we show that exposure of(More)
The phytoplankton assemblage in Lake Kinneret is dominated in spring by a bloom of the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense, which terminates sharply in summer [1]. The pH in Peridinium patches rises during the bloom to values higher than pH9 [2] and results in CO(2) limitation. Here we show that depletion of dissolved CO(2) (CO(2(dis))) stimulated formation(More)