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Large hydrogen-isotopic (D/H) fractionations between lipids and growth water have been observed in most organisms studied to date. These fractionations are generally attributed to isotope effects in the biosynthesis of lipids, and are frequently assumed to be approximately constant for the purpose of reconstructing climatic variables. Here, we report D/H(More)
The rise of atmospheric O(2) was a milestone in the history of life. Although O(2) itself is not a climate-active gas, its appearance would have removed a methane greenhouse present on the early Earth and potentially led to dramatic cooling. Moreover, by fundamentally altering the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, S and Fe, its rise first in the atmosphere and(More)
Isotopic compositions of carbon-bound hydrogen in individual compounds from eight di€erent organisms were measured using isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography±mass spectrometry. This technique is capable of measuring D/H ratios at natural abundance in individual lipids yielding as little as 20 nmol of H 2 , and is applicable to a wide range of(More)
—The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic(More)
Sedimentary hopanes are pentacyclic triterpenoids that serve as biomarker proxies for bacteria and certain bacterial metabolisms, such as oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic methanotrophy. Their parent molecules, the bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), have been hypothesized to be the bacterial equivalent of sterols. However, the actual function of BHPs in(More)
We describe a moving-wire analyzer for measuring 13C in dissolved, involatile organic materials. Liquid samples are first deposited and dried on a continuously spooling nickel wire. The residual sample is then combusted as the wire moves through a furnace, and the evolved CO2 is analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A typical analysis(More)
Hopanoids are triterpenoids produced mainly by bacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment, and have many important applications as biological markers. A wide variety of related hopanoid structures exists, many of which are polyfunctionalized. These modifications render the hopanoids too involatile for conventional gas chromatography (GC) separation, so(More)
—Hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H) of lipid biomarkers extracted from aquatic sediments were measured to determine whether they can be used as a proxy for D/H of environmental water. Values of ␦D were determined by using a recently developed isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system (irmGCMS) and were confirmed by conventional hydrogen(More)
Two fundamentally different approaches, termed "pointwise" and "peakwise," are currently used to correct hydrogen isotope ratio monitoring data for the presence of H3+ ion contributions. Consideration of the underlying assumptions shows that the peakwise approach is valid only for peaks with the same functional shape and only when background signals do not(More)