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Artificial immune system (AIS) has recently been actively researched with a number of emerging engineering applications that has capitalized from its characteristics including self-organization, distributive control, knowledge mapping and fault tolerance. This paper reports the development of an AIS paradigm for the distributive control of a multi-jointed,(More)
The calculation of incidence rates of melanoma in New Zealand has been hampered in the past by incomplete registration of cases. The aim of this study was to document the incidence of melanoma in the Auckland Caucasian population and to define the pathologic characteristics of these lesions. Data were collected for the Auckland region from the New Zealand(More)
BACKGROUND Thoracic trauma is commonly treated with tube thoracostomy. The overall complication rate associated with this procedure is up to 30% among all operators. The primary purpose of this study was to define the incidence and risk factors for complications in chest tubes placed exclusively by resident physicians. The secondary objective was to outline(More)
BACKGROUND Current guidelines for the treatment of melanoma favour conservatism; however there is still uncertainty regarding best practice for lesions of intermediate thickness. Local recurrence, a measure of treatment adequacy, can be used to determine optimum excision margins and give prognostic information for survival. METHODS An analysis of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Elderly patients who suffer trauma have a higher mortality and use disproportionately more trauma resources than younger patients. To compare these 2 groups and determine the outcomes and characteristics of elderly patients, we reviewed patients in these 2 groups admitted and treated in our tertiary care provincial trauma centre. METHODS From(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) exam performed with a digital hand-held ultrasound machine in the emergency evaluation and resuscitation of trauma victims. INTRODUCTION The FAST exam is a valuable screening tool in the evaluation of abdominal trauma. New digital ultrasound units have recently(More)
An agent-based dynamic routing strategy for a generic automated material handling systems (AMHS) is developed. The strategy employs an agent-based paradigm in which the control points of a network of AMHS components are modelled as cooperating node agents. With the inherent features of route discovery a set of shortest and near-shortest path, an(More)