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  • Alex J. Ryan
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • Complexity
  • 2006 (First Publication: 6 September 2006)
  • Since its application to systems, emergence has been explained in terms of levels of observation. This approach has led to confusion, contradiction, incoherence and at times mysticism. When the ideaContinue Reading
  • Alex J. Ryan
  • Engineering
  • 2014 (First Publication: 16 December 2014)
  • As designers move upstream from traditional product and service design to engage with challenges characterised by complexity, uniqueness, value conflict, and ambiguity over objectives, they haveContinue Reading
  • Stefan J. Banach, Alex J. Ryan
  • Computer Science
  • 2009 (First Publication: 1 March 2009)
  • [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] It is well known that when you do anything, unless you understand its actual circumstances, its nature and its relations to other things, you will not know the laws governingContinue Reading
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