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BACKGROUND Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal compound that has recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It is a selective serotonin (5-HT) 3A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of serotonin transporters. The objective of this meta-analysis was(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with significant morbidity and mortality. At the macroscopic level, disease progression is observed as a complex interplay between mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular stiffness, arterial size, and flow. Wall shear stress (WSS) is known to(More)
In this work, we present a systematic phantom comparison and clinical application of noninvasive pressure difference mapping in the human aorta based on time-resolved 3D phase contrast data. Relative pressure differences were calculated based on integration and iterative refinement of pressure gradients derived from MR-based three-directional velocity(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate 3D flow patterns and vessel wall parameters in patients with dilated ascending aorta, age-matched subjects, and healthy volunteers. METHODS Thoracic time-resolved 3D phase contrast CMR with 3-directional velocity encoding was applied to 33 patients with dilated ascending aorta (diameter≥40 mm,(More)
PURPOSE To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. METHODS Four-dimensional flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n = 12, age = 37 ± 10 yr),(More)
Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution(More)
PURPOSE To describe the assessment of the spatiotemporal distribution of relative aortic pressure quantifying the magnitude of its three major components. METHODS Nine healthy volunteers and three patients with aortic disease (bicuspid aortic valve, dissection, and Marfan syndrome) underwent 4D-flow CMR. Spatiotemporal pressure maps were computed from the(More)
PURPOSE To compare pulmonary artery flow using Cartesian and radially sampled four-dimensional flow-sensitive (4D flow) MRI at two institutions. METHODS Nineteen healthy subjects and 17 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) subjects underwent a Cartesian 4D flow acquisition (institution 1) or a three-dimensional radial acquisition (institution 2). The(More)
Functional information regarding cardiac performance, pressure gradients, and local flow derangement are available from blood acceleration fields. Thus, this study examines a 2D and 3D phase contrast sequence optimized to efficiently encode three-directional, time-resolved acceleration in vitro and in vivo. Stenosis phantom acceleration measurements were(More)