Learn More
Heroin-related overdose is the single largest cause of accidental death in San Francisco. We examined demographic, location, nontoxicological, and toxicological characteristics of opiate overdose deaths in San Francisco, California. Medical examiner's case files for every opioid-positive death from July 1, 1997, to June 30, 2000, were reviewed and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between home life risk factors and suicide attempts among homeless and runaway street youth recruited from both shelters and street locations in Denver, CO; New York City; and San Francisco, CA. METHOD Street youth 12-19 years old (N = 775) were recruited by street outreach staff in Denver, New York City and San(More)
Fatal heroin overdose has become a leading cause of death among injection drug users (IDUs). Several recent feasibility studies have concluded that naloxone distribution programs for heroin injectors should be implemented to decrease heroin over-dose deaths, but there have been no prospective trials of such programs in North America. This pilot study was(More)
BACKGROUND Many new HIV-1 infections in the USA occur in injection drug users (IDUs). HIV-1seroconversion of IDUs is mainly associated with injection-related risk factors. Harm- reduction programmes concentrate on injection-risk behaviour. We aimed to establish whether injection or sexual risk factors, or both, were associated with HIV-1antibody(More)
The mortality and morbidity from heroin overdose have increased in the United States and internationally in the last decade. The lipid solubility allows the rapid deposition of heroin and its metabolites into the central nervous system and accounts for the "rush" experienced by users and for the toxicity. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal heroin overdoses(More)
OBJECTIVES This study deter- mined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among street-recruited injection drug users and crack cocaine smokers. METHODS An analysis was performed on HIV serologies and risk behaviors of 6402 injection drug users and 3383 crack smokers in 16 US municipalities in 1992 and(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine prevalence of and risk factors for nonfatal recent overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users. METHODS From August 1998 through July 1999, 1427 heroin injectors were recruited from 6 inner-city neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area, Calif, and interviewed. Factors hypothesized to be associated(More)
Naloxone, an injectable opiate antagonist, can immediately reverse an opiate overdose and prevent overdose death. We sought to determine injection drug users' (IDUs) attitudes about being prescribed take-home naloxone. During November 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed 82 street-recruited IDUs from the San Francisco Bay Area of California who had(More)
UNLABELLED Previous studies suggest that most injection drug users (IDUs) become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) soon after initiating drug use. The Urban Health Study (UHS) recruited serial cross-sections of IDUs in the San Francisco Bay area from 1986 to 2005. In the current study, we determined the prevalence of antibody(More)