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In three experiments, we examined the effects of old age on the reaction time (RT) decrement associated with task alternation. Old age was associated with increased mixing-cost, which is the RT difference between two conditions: mixed-task, where trials involving two tasks were intermixed, and single-task, where all the trials involved the same task. Old(More)
Studies have shown that task sets could be configured endogenously (i.e., on the basis of memory) according to an explicit sequence or exogenously according to a task cue. In two experiments, we examined whether an implicitly learned sequence could facilitate task set configuration without participants' intention. These experiments led to opposite(More)
The goal of the present investigation was to discover whether visual working memory maintenance for faces is modulated by facial expression using event-related potentials (ERPs). Each trial consisted of two sequential arrays, a memory array and a test array, each including either two or four faces with neutral or fearful expressions. The faces were(More)
Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not related to(More)
Experiments using diverse paradigms, including speeded discrimination, indicate that pitch and visually-perceived size interact perceptually, and that higher pitch is congruent with smaller size. While nearly all of these studies used static stimuli, here we examine the interaction of dynamic pitch and dynamic size, using Garner's speeded discrimination(More)
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