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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the(More)
This paper is a critique of Norman Daniels' and James Sabin's 'Accountability for Reasonableness' framework for making priority-setting decisions in health care in the face of widespread disagreement about values. Accountability for Reasonableness has been rapidly gaining worldwide acceptance, arguably to the point of becoming the dominant paradigm in the(More)
In this work, we visualize high-dimensional particle simulation data using a suite of scatterplot-based visualiza-tions coupled with interactive selection tools. We use traditional 2D and 3D projection scatterplots as well as a novel oriented-disk rendering style to convey various information about the data. Interactive selection tools allow physicists to(More)
—The accuracy of first-order Euler and higher-order time-integration algorithms for grid-based Langevin equations collision models in a specific relaxation test problem is assessed. We show that statistical noise errors can overshadow time-step errors and argue that statistical noise errors can be conflated with time-step effects. Using a higher-order(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine serum markers measured in the second trimester to identify women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. METHODS Clinically defined preeclampsia was confirmed in 45 women who had provided a serum sample as part of Down syndrome screening. Preeclampsia was categorized as mild or severe, as well as early (<32 weeks) or late onset. Each(More)
Vlasov simulations can for some situations be a valuable alternative to PIC simulations for the study of intense beam propagation. However, as they rely on a phase-space grid which is fixed for the whole simulation, important computing effort can be wasted in zones where no particles are present at some given time. In order to overcome this drawback, we(More)
Plasma simulations are often rendered challenging by the disparity of scales in time and in space which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. We briefly discuss the challenges(More)
Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular tool for both basic research and clinical applications, its actions on nerve cells are only partially understood. We have previously predicted, using compartmental modeling, that magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action(More)
In this paper we describe an implementation of a single-fluid interface model in the ALE-AMR code to simulate surface tension effects. The model does not require explicit information on the physical state of the two phases. The only change to the existing fluid equations is an additional term in the stress tensor. We show results of applying the model to an(More)