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Our understanding of how variable wind in natural environments affects flying insects is limited because most studies of insect flight are conducted in either smooth flow or still air conditions. Here, we investigate the effects of structured, unsteady flow (the von Karman vortex street behind a cylinder) on the flight performance of bumblebees (Bombus(More)
BACKGROUND Major efforts are being directed at the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The diagnosis rate of non-palpable tumors is steadily growing as a result of increased screening by mammography. In most patients with non-palpable lesions, percutaneous image-guided biopsies have replaced wire localization with surgical excision for obtaining tissue(More)
Pulmonary aspiration is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Older adult patients have been shown to be particularly at risk for aspiration. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a simple, noninvasive screening test-the monitored sip test-in identifying patients at risk for aspiration, including "silent(More)
This paper presents an artificial afterload, based on the Westerhof model, for use in isolated heart preparations. The system has adjustable elements representing peripheral resistance and total arterial compliance, together with a fixed element representing aortic impedance. It is controlled by a computer in a manner which incorporates feed forward and(More)
Nature's flapping-wing flyers are adept at negotiating highly turbulent flows across a wide range of scales. This is in part due to their ability to quickly detect and counterract disturbances to their flight path, but may also be assisted by an inherent aerodynamic property of flapping wings. In this study, we subject a mechanical flapping wing to(More)
This paper explores a method by which an unpowered, fixed-wing micro air vehicle (MAV) may autonomously gain height by utilising orographic updrafts in urban environments. These updrafts are created when wind impinges on both man-made and natural obstacles, and are often highly turbulent and very localised. Thus in contrast to most previous autonomous(More)
The aerial environment in the operating domain of small-scale natural and artificial flapping wing fliers is highly complex, unsteady and generally turbulent. Considering flapping flight in an unsteady wind environment with a periodically varying lateral velocity component, we show that body rotations experienced by flapping wing fliers result in the(More)
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