Alex F. de Vos

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The current interest in expression of groups of functionally related genes creates a demand for novel experimental tools. We describe a multiplex ligation-dependent amplification procedure (RT-MLPA), which accurately quantifies up to 45 transcripts of interest in a one-tube assay. The output, a set of fluorescent DNA fragments, is analysed via capillary(More)
The cholinergic nervous system can inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha from LPS-stimulated macrophages. Acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter of the vagus nerve, is the key mediator of this so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, specifically interacting with alpha7 cholinergic receptors expressed by(More)
BACKGROUND The nervous system, through the vagus nerve, can down-regulate inflammation in vivo by decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor- alpha by endotoxin-stimulated macrophages. This anti-inflammatory effect is mediated by an interaction between acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter of the vagus nerve, and cholinergic nicotinic(More)
Dendritic cells are thought to regulate tolerance induction vs immunization by transferring Ags and peripheral signals to draining lymph nodes (LN). However, whether myelin Ag transfer and presentation in LN occurs during demyelinating brain disease is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate redistribution of autoantigens from brain lesions to cervical LN in(More)
PURPOSE Ample evidence is available demonstrating that cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of uveitis. Because little is known concerning the site of cytokine synthesis in the eye, cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed in the uvea, retina, and cornea during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in the rat. METHODS RNA was isolated from the iris,(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential in host defense against pathogens by virtue of their capacity to detect microbes and initiate the immune response. TLR2 is seen as the most important receptor for gram-positive bacteria, while TLR4 is regarded as the gram-negative TLR. Melioidosis is a severe infection caused by the gram-negative(More)
PURPOSE To determine the kinetics of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and aqueous humor of rats with different susceptibilities to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), after footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS Samples were collected from EIU-susceptible Lewis rats and EIU-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats for up(More)
A number of cell types situated along interfaces of various tissues and organs such as the peritoneum and the intestine have been shown to secrete inflammatory cytokines in a polarized fashion. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are positioned at the interface between the vascularized choroid and the avascular retina, forming part of the blood-retina(More)
The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a crucial role in mucosal immune responses. We demonstrate in this study that RA-producing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes are postnatally induced in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) and MLN stromal cells. RALDH enzyme activity in lamina propria-derived CD103(+) MLN-DCs did not(More)
RATIONALE Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is considered to be important for an appropriate immune response against pathogens that enter the lower airways. OBJECTIVES We studied the effects of two different TLR agonists relevant for respiratory infections in the human lung: lipoteichoic acid (LTA; TLR2(More)