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Female Anopheles culicifacies Giles from Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu state, India, were examined for oocysts and sporozoites and their larval progeny for mitotic karyotype. Collections were made from Mandapam and Uchipuli on the mainland, and Thangachimadam and Pamban on Rameshwaram Island. Of the 451 An. culicifacies females that were collected and(More)
Among the four human malaria parasites, drug resistance occurs mainly in Plasmodium falciparum. However, there are some reports of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. vivax from different geographical regions. In India, approximately 50% of a total of 2 million cases of malaria reported annually are due to P. vivax. CQ is the drug of choice for treatment.(More)
Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ∼1.6 million cases and ∼1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria(More)
Assessing the Plasmodium vivax burden in India is complicated by the potential threat of an emerging chloroquine (CQ) resistant parasite population from neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and an urban setting for P. vivax in southern India, was selected as a sentinel site for investigating CQ efficacy and(More)
Environmental temperature is an important driver of malaria transmission dynamics. Both the parasite and vector are sensitive to mean ambient temperatures and daily temperature variation. To understand transmission ecology, therefore, it is important to determine the range of microclimatic temperatures experienced by malaria vectors in the field. A pilot(More)
Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We(More)
The unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. These changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal(More)
Genetic polymorphism is an inevitable component of a complex organism especially in multistage infectious organisms such as malaria parasites. Understanding the population genetic structure of the parasites would provide valuable information for effective malaria control strategies. Recently, the development of molecular tools like PCR has made analysis of(More)
In total, 129 Plasmodium vivax isolates from different geographical areas in India were analysed for point mutations in the P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase gene that were associated with pyrimethamine resistance. A gradual increase in the frequency of mutant genotypes was observed from north to south (p <0.0001). In the northern region (Delhi, Panna and(More)
Reactive case detection (RCD) for malaria is a strategy to identify additional malaria infections in areas of low malaria transmission and can complement passive surveillance. This study describes experiences with RCD in two Indian sites, and aimed to synthesize experiences with RCD across endemic countries. RCD programmes were piloted in two urban areas of(More)