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Environmental temperature is an important driver of malaria transmission dynamics. Both the parasite and vector are sensitive to mean ambient temperatures and daily temperature variation. To understand transmission ecology, therefore, it is important to determine the range of microclimatic temperatures experienced by malaria vectors in the field. A pilot(More)
Female Anopheles culicifacies Giles from Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu state, India, were examined for oocysts and sporozoites and their larval progeny for mitotic karyotype. Collections were made from Mandapam and Uchipuli on the mainland, and Thangachimadam and Pamban on Rameshwaram Island. Of the 451 An. culicifacies females that were collected and(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Aedes mosquito control has gained much importance nowadays in view of rise in number of reported cases of dengue and chikungunya in India and other countries. In the present study, C21 attracticide (containing a pheromone and an insect growth regulator—IGR, developed by Defence Research and Development Establishment (DRDE), Gwalior,(More)
Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ∼1.6 million cases and ∼1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria(More)
Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We(More)
Among the four human malaria parasites, drug resistance occurs mainly in Plasmodium falciparum. However, there are some reports of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. vivax from different geographical regions. In India, approximately 50% of a total of 2 million cases of malaria reported annually are due to P. vivax. CQ is the drug of choice for treatment.(More)
Assessing the Plasmodium vivax burden in India is complicated by the potential threat of an emerging chloroquine (CQ) resistant parasite population from neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and an urban setting for P. vivax in southern India, was selected as a sentinel site for investigating CQ efficacy and(More)
A GIS based information management system has been developed to help Urban Malaria Control in India. The basic objective is to develop a model to assist planning and implementation of a suitable control measure. The system can help in: (i) identifying high receptive areas in time and space domain; (ii) identifying risk factors for high receptivity; (iii)(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is known to possess antiparasitic activity towards Plasmodium species. Parasite proteases are currently considered to be promising targets for antimalarial chemotherapy. In the present study, we have studied the inhibitory effect of NO on the activity of plasmepsin in Plasmodium vivax, the pepsin-like aspartic protease which is believed to(More)
Genetic polymorphism is an inevitable component of a complex organism especially in multistage infectious organisms such as malaria parasites. Understanding the population genetic structure of the parasites would provide valuable information for effective malaria control strategies. Recently, the development of molecular tools like PCR has made analysis of(More)