Alex E Marcillo

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Vigorous immune responses are induced in the immune privileged CNS by injury and disease, but the molecular mechanisms regulating innate immunity in the CNS are poorly defined. The inflammatory response initiated by spinal cord injury (SCI) involves activation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) that contributes to secondary cell death. In the peripheral immune(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult rats initiates a cascade of events producing a nonpermissive environment for axonal regeneration. This nonfavorable environment could be due to the expression of repulsive factors. The Eph receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their respective ligands (ephrins) are families of molecules that play a major role in axonal(More)
In these studies, we examined the neuroprotective effects of the potent antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) following spinal cord injury (SCI). Neuroprotection was assessed by using behavioral and morphological end points. We hypothesized that injury-induced inflammation contributes to the resulting neuropathology and subsequent loss of(More)
This article reviews the pathology of human spinal cord injury (SCI), focusing on potential differences between humans and experimental animals, as well as on aspects that may have mechanistic or therapeutic relevance. Importance is placed on astrocyte and microglial reactions. These cells carry out a myriad of functions and we review the evidence that(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a key mediator of inflammation during pathological conditions. We examined, through the use of selective iNOS inhibitors, the role of iNOS in specific pathophysiological processes after spinal cord injury (SCI), including astrogliosis, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, polymorphonuclear leukocyte(More)
Clinically effective drug treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) remain unavailable. Agmatine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is an endogenous neuromodulator found in the brain and spinal cord. Evidence is presented that agmatine significantly improves locomotor function and reduces tissue damage following(More)
Cervical contusive trauma accounts for the majority, of human spinal cord injury (SCI), yet experimental use of cervical contusion injury models has been limited. Considering that (1) the different ways of injuring the spinal cord (compression, contusion, and transection) induce very different processes of tissue damage and (2) the architecture of the(More)
The Fas/CD95 receptor-ligand system plays an essential role in apoptosis that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the mechanism regulating the efficiency of FasL/Fas signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. Here, FasL/Fas signaling complexes in membrane rafts were investigated in the spinal cord of adult(More)
The present study addresses the effects of moderate posttraumatic hypothermia (32 degrees C) on the temporal and regional profile of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that posttraumatic hypothermia would reduce the degree of inflammation by reducing PMNL infiltration. Rats underwent(More)
OBJECT Local spinal cord cooling (LSCC) is associated with beneficial effects when applied following ischemic or traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the clinical application of LSCC is associated with many technical difficulties such as the requirement of special cooling devices, emergency surgery, and complicated postoperative management. If(More)