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Natural language negation is persistently negative in the pragmatic sense, and emphatic and attenuating negative polarity items modulate this effect in systematic ways. I use large corpora of informal texts with meta-data approximating features of the context to characterize this pragmatic negativity, and I attempt to explain it in terms of the ways in(More)
1. Resolvedness and the task The starting point for this paper is Ginzburg's (1995a) observation that the resolvedness conditions for questions are not semantically invariant, but rather " fixed in a particular context to a level identified by the goal " of the conversation Such goal-orientation is especially clear for questions like Where are you?, in(More)
We present a graph-theoretic model of discourse based on the Questions Under Discussion (QUD) framework. Questions and assertions are treated as edges connecting discourse states in a rooted graph, modeling the introduction and resolution of various QUDs as paths through this graph. The amount of common ground presupposed by interlocutors at any given point(More)
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