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Gain modulation is a prominent feature of neuronal activity recorded in behaving animals, but the mechanism by which it occurs is unknown. By introducing a barrage of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances that mimics conditions encountered in vivo into pyramidal neurons in slices of rat somatosensory cortex, we show that the gain of a neuronal(More)
The precise role of synchronous neuronal firing in signal encoding remains unclear. To examine what kinds of signals can be carried by synchrony, I reproduced a multilayer feedforward network of neurons in an in vitro slice preparation of rat cortex using an iterative procedure. When constant and time-varying frequency signals were delivered to the network,(More)
The role of local cortical activity in shaping neuronal responses is controversial. Among other questions, it is unknown how the diverse response patterns reported in vivo-lateral inhibition in some cases, approximately balanced excitation and inhibition (co-tuning) in others-compare to the local spread of synaptic connectivity. Excitatory and inhibitory(More)
Neuronal firing is determined largely by incoming barrages of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), each of which produce a transient increase in firing probability. To measure the effects of weak transient inputs on firing probability of cortical neurons, we compute phase-response curves (PRCs). PRCs, whose shape can be related to the dynamics of(More)
To simplify theoretical analyses of neural networks, individual neurons are often modeled as Poisson processes. An implicit assumption is that even if the spiking activity of each neuron is non-Poissonian, the composite activity obtained by summing many spike trains limits to a Poisson process. Here, we show analytically and through simulations that this(More)
The interplay between inhibition and excitation is at the core of cortical network activity. In many cortices, including auditory cortex (ACx), interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons generate synchronous network gamma oscillations (30-70 Hz). Here, we show that differences in the connection patterns and synaptic properties of(More)
Variance adaptation processes have recently been examined in cells of the y visual system and various vertebrate preparations. To better understand the contributions of somatic mechanisms to this kind of adaptation, we recorded intracellularly in vitro from neurons of rat sensorimotor cortex. The cells were stimulated with a noise current whose standard(More)
Dendritic conductances have previously been shown to boost excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To determine whether this boosting translates to an increase in the efficacy for evoking action potentials, we injected barrages of EPSPs that simulate the inputs generated by a population of presynaptic cells into either the dendrite or the soma of(More)
We investigated the development of L2/3 pyramidal cell (PC) circuitry in juvenile mice from postnatal day 10 (P10) to P29. Using whole cell recordings in an in vitro thalamocortical slice preparation, we examined the connection architecture and intrinsic and synaptic properties of PCs. The excitatory connections between PCs were highly localized: the(More)
It is postulated that synchronous firing of cortical neurons plays an active role in cognitive functions of the brain. An important issue is whether pyramidal neurons in different cortical layers exhibit similar tendencies to synchronise. To address this issue, we performed intracellular and whole-cell recordings of regular-spiking pyramidal neurons in(More)