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We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these(More)
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with "spill-over" from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs(More)
A morbillivirus has been isolated and added to an increasing list of emerging viral diseases. This virus caused an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in horses and humans. Genetic analyses show it to be only distantly related to the classic morbilliviruses rinderpest, measles, and canine distemper. When seen by electron microscopy, viruses had 10- and(More)
BACKGROUND In September, 1994, an outbreak of severe respiratory disease affected 18 horses, their trainer, and a stablehand in Queensland, Australia. Fourteen horses and one human being died. A novel virus was isolated from those affected and named equine morbillivirus (EMV). We report a case of encephalitis caused by this virus. FINDINGS A 35-year-old(More)
This report describes the first pathologic and immunohistochemical recognition in Australia of a rabies-like disease in a native mammal, a fruit bat, the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto). A virus with close serologic and genetic relationships to members of the Lyssavirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae was isolated in mice from the tissue homogenates of(More)
contributed to the studies outlined in this paper. Richard Lawrence, Clinical Superintendent of Medicine, Westmead Hospital, provided valuable discussions on clinical aspects and case presentation. Our investigations were supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Ramaciotti Foundations. Plikaytis B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent(More)
We isolated an apparently new virus in the family Paramyxoviridae from stillborn piglets with deformities at a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. In 1997, the pregnancy rate and litter size at the piggery decreased markedly, while the proportion of mummified fetuses increased. We found serologic evidence of infection in pigs at the affected piggery and(More)
Ten juvenile green pythons (Chondropython viridis) died or were euthanized shortly after having been illegally imported into Australia from Indonesia in 1998. Histologic examination of two of the three snakes that died revealed moderately severe chronic ulceration of the nasal mucosa and focal or periacinar degeneration and necrosis of the liver. In(More)
Global trade in the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana has been implicated in the introduction and spread of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Large-scale production of the North American bullfrog for human consumption has been ongoing since the early part of the 20th century, particularly in Brazil, a pioneer in bullfrog farming(More)
To the Editor: Nipah virus (NiV) emerged in peninsular Malaysia in 1998 and 1999 as a respiratory and neurologic disease of domestic pigs and an acute febrile encephalitic disease in humans (1). Nipah virus infection is associated with a case-fatality ratio of 40% to 76% in humans (1,2). Cats (Felis catus) were infected with NiV at the site of the outbreak(More)