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The sudden appearance of chytridiomycosis, the cause of amphibian deaths and population declines in several continents, suggests that its etiologic agent, the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was introduced into the affected regions. However, the origin of this virulent pathogen is unknown. A survey was conducted of 697 archived specimens(More)
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with "spill-over" from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs(More)
We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these(More)
by severe pulmonary disease, including pleural effusions. Clinicians worldwide should be mindful that melioidosis in tsunami survivors may appear many years after exposure. Acknowledgments We thank Rus Munander; colleagues who participated in acute medical relief efforts Ambulance Service; our colleagues who supported us at home; and Diana Huis in 't Velt(More)
Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully(More)
Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first(More)
BACKGROUND In September, 1994, an outbreak of severe respiratory disease affected 18 horses, their trainer, and a stablehand in Queensland, Australia. Fourteen horses and one human being died. A novel virus was isolated from those affected and named equine morbillivirus (EMV). We report a case of encephalitis caused by this virus. FINDINGS A 35-year-old(More)
This report describes the first pathologic and immunohistochemical recognition in Australia of a rabies-like disease in a native mammal, a fruit bat, the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto). A virus with close serologic and genetic relationships to members of the Lyssavirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae was isolated in mice from the tissue homogenates of(More)
contributed to the studies outlined in this paper. Richard Lawrence, Clinical Superintendent of Medicine, Westmead Hospital, provided valuable discussions on clinical aspects and case presentation. Our investigations were supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Ramaciotti Foundations. Plikaytis B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent(More)
We isolated an apparently new virus in the family Paramyxoviridae from stillborn piglets with deformities at a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. In 1997, the pregnancy rate and litter size at the piggery decreased markedly, while the proportion of mummified fetuses increased. We found serologic evidence of infection in pigs at the affected piggery and(More)