Alex D. Chacko

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Bortezomib (Velcade, PS341) was licensed in 2003 as a first-in-class 20S proteasome inhibitor indicated for treatment of multiple myeloma, and is currently being evaluated clinically in a range of solid tumours. The mechanisms underlying its cancer cell toxicity are complex. A growing body of evidence suggests proteasome inhibition-dependent regulation of(More)
Expression of the Kdp system sensitizes cells to methylglyoxal (MG) whether this electrophile is added externally or is synthesized endogenously. The basis of this enhanced sensitivity is the maintenance of a higher cytoplasmic pH (pHi) in cells expressing Kdp. In such cells, MG elicits rapid cytoplasmic acidification via KefB and KefC, but the steady-state(More)
Several lines of evidence indicate that altered expression of SEPT9 is seen in human neoplasia. In particular there is evidence of altered expression of the SEPT9_v4 isoform. The functional consequences of this remain unclear. We have studied the expression of wild-type- and GTP-binding mutants (G144V and S148N) of the SEPT9_v4 isoform in the MCF7 cell line(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) cultures are a valuable platform to study acquired multicellular apoptotic resistance of cancer. We used spheroids of cell lines and actual tumor to study resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in mesothelioma, a highly chemoresistant tumor. Spheroids from mesothelioma cell lines acquired resistance to bortezomib by failing(More)
Activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cancer that is currently under clinical evaluation. Identification of molecular biomarkers of resistance is likely to play an important role in predicting clinical anti tumour activity. The(More)
The evolutionarily conserved septin family of genes encode GTP binding proteins involved in a variety of cellular functions including cytokinesis, apoptosis, membrane dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Septin proteins can form hetero-oligomeric complexes and interact with other proteins including actin and tubulin. The human SEPT9 gene on chromosome 17q25.3(More)
Resistance to cisplatin chemotherapy remains a major hurdle preventing effective treatment of many solid cancers. BAX and BAK are pivotal regulators of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, however little is known regarding their regulation in cisplatin resistant cells. Cisplatin induces DNA damage in both sensitive and resistant cells, however the latter(More)
Failure to efficiently induce apoptosis contributes to cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and BCL-2 antagonist killer (BAK) are critical regulators of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, their requirement has not been robustly established in relation to cisplatin. Here, we show that(More)
Based on promising preclinical efficacy associated with the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), two phase II clinical trials have been initiated (EORTC 08052 and ICORG 05-10). However, the potential mechanisms underlying resistance to this targeted drug in MPM are still unknown. Functional genetic analyses were(More)
INTRODUCTION The molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial BAK activation during apoptosis remains highly controversial. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed. In one, BAK requires so-called activating BH3 only proteins (aBH3) to initiate its conformation change. In the other, displacement from inhibitory pro-survival BCL-2 proteins (PBPs)(More)