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Excessive accumulation of sodium in plants causes toxicity. No mutation that greatly diminishes sodium (Na+) influx into plant roots has been isolated. The OsHKT2;1 (previously named OsHKT1) transporter from rice functions as a relatively Na+-selective transporter in heterologous expression systems, but the in vivo function of OsHKT2;1 remains unknown.(More)
Exposure to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in cell death, but the molecular mechanisms of Cd(2+) cytotoxicity in plants are not fully understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension cultures underwent a process of programmed cell death when exposed to 100 and 150 microm CdCl(2) and that this process resembled an accelerated(More)
BACKGROUND A common limitation in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that ectopically expressing a gene(More)
Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays for the analysis of gene function are used as alternatives to genetic complementation and stable plant transformation. Although such assays are routinely performed in several plant species, they have not yet been successfully applied to grapevines. We explored genetic background diversity of grapevine cultivars and(More)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis and shown, particularly in animal cells, to play additional roles in several unrelated non-metabolic processes such as control of gene expression and apoptosis. This functional versatility is regulated, in part at least, by redox post-translational modifications(More)
The relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here it is shown that SA is able to induce NO synthesis in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. NO production was detected by confocal microscopic analysis and spectrofluorometric assay in plant roots and cultured cells. To identify the metabolic(More)
In a previous study we have shown that wounding of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves induces a strong and transient immunity to Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed within minutes after wounding and are required for wound–induced resistance to B. cinerea. In this study, we have further explored ROS and(More)
Oxidative stress is a major challenge for all cells living in an oxygen-based world. Among reactive oxygen species, H2O2, is a well known toxic molecule and, nowadays, considered a specific component of several signalling pathways. In order to gain insight into the roles played by H2O2 in plant cells, it is necessary to have a reliable, specific and(More)
In planta, very limited information is available about how the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to cellular Ca(2+) dynamics and homeostasis. Here, we report the generation of an ER-targeted Cameleon reporter protein suitable for analysis of Ca(2+) accumulation and dynamics in the lumen of the ER in plant cells. Using stably transformed Arabidopsis(More)
Members of class II of the HKT transporters, which have thus far only been isolated from grasses, were found to mediate Na(+)-K(+) cotransport and at high Na(+) concentrations preferred Na(+)-selective transport, depending on the ionic conditions. But the physiological functions of this K(+)-transporting class II of HKT transporters remain unknown in(More)