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OBJECTIVE To highlight emerging evidence for clinical and biological links between autism/pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and schizophrenia, with particular attention to childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). METHOD Clinical, demographic, and brain developmental data from the National Institute of Mental Health (and other) COS studies and selected(More)
What is considered to be fair depends on context-dependent expectations. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game, we demonstrate that both fair behavior and perceptions of fairness depend upon beliefs about what one ought to do in a situation – that is, upon normative expectations. We manipulate such expectations by creating informational asymmetries(More)
Using an economic bargaining game, we tested for the existence of two phenomena related to social norms, namely norm manipulation – the selection of an interpretation of the norm that best suits an individual – and norm evasion – the deliberate, private violation of a social norm. We found that the manipulation of a norm of fairness was characterized by a(More)
Earlier studies revealed progressive cortical gray matter (GM) loss in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) across both lateral and medial surfaces of the developing brain. Here, we use tensor-based morphometry to visualize white matter (WM) growth abnormalities in COS throughout the brain. Using high-dimensional elastic image registration, we compared 3D(More)
We explored regional and total volumetric cerebellar differences in probands and their unaffected full siblings relative to typically developing participants. Participants included 94 (51 males) patients diagnosed with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), 80 related non-psychotic siblings (37 males) and 110 (64 males) typically developing participants(More)
CONTEXT Nonpsychotic siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) share cortical gray matter abnormalities with their probands at an early age; these normalize by the time the siblings are aged 18 years, suggesting that the gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia could be an age-specific endophenotype. Patients with COS also show(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of antipsychotic medications on gray matter (GM) in schizophrenia. Although clozapine remains the most effective antipsychotic medication in treatment-refractory cases, it is unknown whether it has a differential effect on GM development. METHODS In an exploratory analysis, we used automated cortical thickness(More)
While computational cognitive modeling has made great strides in addressing complex dynamic tasks, the modeling of individual differences in complex tasks remains a largely unexplored area of research. In this paper we present a straightforward approach to modeling individual differences, specifically age-related cognitive differences, in complex tasks, and(More)
The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both(More)