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BACKGROUND Respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses spread rapidly, resulting in significant annual morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the most effective public health measure against infection is immunisation with an influenza vaccine matching the relevant circulating influenza strains. Although a number of developments in terms of(More)
The traditional antiviral assays for the determination of interferon potency are reported to have considerable variability between and within assays. Although several reporter gene assays based on interferon-inducible promoter activities have been reported, data from comprehensive validation studies are lacking and few studies have been conducted to analyze(More)
A binding assay was recently published that differentiates between pertussis toxin (PTx) and the pertussis toxoid (PTd) used in acellular pertussis vaccines based on the selective binding of PTx to fetuin and detection with a polyclonal antibody. We found that the assay specificity for PTx was affected by both pH and salt. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was(More)
Quantitative determination of the individual polysaccharide components in multivalent meningococcal vaccines is an important step in manufacturing and regulatory control. Current methods are complicated due to the use of multiple chromatographic setups and/or other analytical techniques for the four meningococcal serogroup polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135).(More)
The impact of risk factors on the amount of time taken to reach an endpoint is a common parameter of interest. Hazard ratios are often estimated using a discrete-time approximation, which works well when the by-interval event rate is low. However, if the intervals are made more frequent than the observation times, missing values will arise. We investigated(More)
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