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The neurotrophin receptor TrkA plays critical roles in the nervous system by recruiting signaling molecules that activate pathways required for the growth and survival of neurons. Here, we report APPL1 as a TrkA-associated protein. APPL1 and TrkA co-immunoprecipitated in sympathetic neurons. We have identified two routes through which this association can(More)
Are teachers' impacts on students' test scores (" value-added ") a good measure of their quality? This question has sparked debate partly because of a lack of evidence on whether high value-added (VA) teachers improve students' long-term outcomes. Using school district and tax records for more than one million children, we find that students assigned to(More)
There is a growing public perception that intergenerational income mobility—a child's chance of moving up in the income distribution relative to her parents—is declining in the United States. We present new evidence on trends in intergenerational mobility using administrative earnings records for children born between 1971 and 1993. For the 1971–1986 birth(More)
Lung cancer nodules, particularly adenocarcinoma, contain a complex intermixing of cellular tissue types: incorporating cancer cells, fibroblastic stromal tissue, and inactive fibrosis. Quantitative proportions and distributions of the various tissue types may be insightful for understanding lung cancer growth, classification, and prognostic factors.(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis are recognised infrequently. In March, 1995, a sudden increase of serologically diagnosed cases of acute toxoplasmosis was noted in the Greater Victoria area of British Columbia, Canada. Concurrently, but independently, seven cases of acute toxoplasma retinitis were diagnosed against a background of no cases in the(More)
Cardiotoxicity, also referred to as drug-induced cardiac injury, is an issue associated with the use of some small-molecule kinase inhibitors and antibody-based therapies targeting signaling pathways in cancer. Although these drugs have had a major impact on cancer patient survival, data have implicated kinase-targeting agents such as sunitinib, imatinib,(More)
This paper develops a framework to study the effects of tax expenditures on intergenerational mobility using spatial variation in tax expenditures across the United States. We measure intergenerational mobility at the local (census commuting zone) level based on the correlation between parents' and children's earnings. We show that the level of local tax(More)
In this paper a experiment is presented in which two simulated robots evolved a form of communication to allow one of the robots to complete the task of finding a light placed in the world. The robots are constrained so that one has inputs about the world, seeing robot, and the other, blind robot, has no sensors besides an input from the seeing robot. The(More)