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We give new evidence that quantum computers -- moreover, rudimentary quantum computers built entirely out of linear-optical elements -- cannot be efficiently simulated by classical computers. In particular, we define a model of computation in which identical photons are generated, sent through a linear-optical network, then nonadaptively measured to count(More)
PURPOSE This phase III, double-blind, randomized, multicenter study evaluated the efficacy, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the oral aromatase inactivator exemestane (EXE) versus megestrol acetate (MA) in postmenopausal women with progressive advanced breast cancer who experienced failure of tamoxifen. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 769 patients were(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of a new steroidal aromatase inactivator, exemestane, in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer who had progressive disease (PD) after treatment with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this phase II trial, eligible patients were treated with exemestane 25 mg daily(More)
We compared the efficacy and safety of the oral aromatase inactivator exemestane (EXE) with megestrol acetate (MA) in women with metastatic breast cancer. This phase III randomized, double-blind, multicenter study was conducted in 769 postmenopausal women who had experienced tamoxifen failure. Treatment arms consisted of EXE 25 mg once daily (n=366) or MA(More)
BosonSampling, which we proposed three years ago, is a scheme for using linear-optical networks to solve sampling problems that appear to be intractable for a classical computer. In a recent manuscript, Gogolin et al. claimed that even an ideal BosonSampling device's output would be " operationally indistinguishable " from a uniform random outcome, at least(More)
PURPOSE To assess the antitumor activity, safety, and hormone-suppressive effects of the irreversible aromatase inactivator, exemestane (Aromasin, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI), administered as third-line hormone therapy to postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer that is refractory to tamoxifen and megestrol acetate. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
We motivate and prove a version of the birthday paradox for k identical bosons in n possible modes. If the bosons are in the uniform mixed state, also called the maximally mixed quantum state, then we need k p n bosons to expect two in the same state, which is smaller by a factor of p 2 than in the case of distinguishable objects (boltzmannons). While the(More)
Evoked potentials (EPs) of the brain in response to visual neutral and emotionally meaningful (threatening) stimuli were studied in order to clarify neurophysiological disturbances of affective perception during the psychotic state in schizophrenic patients with severe paranoid–hallucinatory syndrome who did not receive neuroleptic therapy. Analysis of the(More)
Conventionally, unitary transformations on optical modes have been implemented on a spatial basis set using a system of beamsplitters and phase shifters. We present methods which allow orders of magnitude increase in the number of modes in linear optics experiments by moving from spatial encoding to temporal encoding and using dispersion. This enables(More)