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BACKGROUND HIV-1 non-B subtypes have recently entered Western Europe following immigration from other regions. The distribution of non-B clades and their association with demographic factors, over the entire course of the HIV-1 epidemic, have not been fully investigated in Italy. METHODS We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences(More)
A recent increase in HIV diagnoses among men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) has been shown by surveillance data from Europe and Italy, and new approaches to inferring viral population dynamics from heterochronously sampled gene sequences have been developed. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the epidemiological history of HIV-1 subtype B in a homogeneous(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in Uganda. In Europe WNV was sporadically detected until 1996, since then the virus has been regularly isolated from birds and mosquitoes and caused several outbreaks in horses and humans. Phylogenetic analysis showed two main different WNV lineages. The lineage 1 is widespread and segregates into different subclades(More)
Hepatitis E virus is classified into four genotypes that have different geographical and host distributions. The main cause of sporadic autochthonous type E acute hepatitis in developed countries is genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution and widely infects pigs. The aim of this study was to make hypotheses concerning the origin and global dispersion(More)
Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash. Chikungunya virus is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes; Chikungunya virus replicates in the skin, disseminates to liver, muscle, joints, lymphoid tissue and brain, presumably through the blood. Phylogenetic(More)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family that has recently been isolated from the upper respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory infection. All of the strains observed so far segregate into two genotypes (1 and 2) with a low level of polymorphism. Given the recent description of the(More)
BACKGROUND Telbivudine is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication without anti-HIV type-1 (HIV-1) activity demonstrated in vitro; however, very few clinical data on HIV-1-infected patients are available at present. Because it represents a therapeutic option in HIV-1-HBV-coinfected patients who do not require antiretroviral therapy, we(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the Alphavirus genus, which is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes and was firstly identified in Tanzania in the mid 1950s. In this article, the findings of a phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the recent CHIKV pandemic are reported. We estimated time of origin of the ancestral(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most genetically variable human viruses as it is characterized by high rates of mutation, viral replication, and recombination. Phylodynamics is a powerful means of describing the behavior of an infection as a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Only a few studies of HIV-1 molecular(More)
About 40% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic due to non-B variants is sustained by F1 clade, which circulates at high prevalence in South America and Eastern Europe. Aim of this study was to define clade F1 origin, population dynamics and epidemiological networks through phylogenetic approaches. We analyzed pol sequences of 343 patients carrying F1 subtype(More)