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Transgenic mice expressing the human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) mutant at position 93 (G93A) develop a phenotype resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In fact, G93A mice develop progressive motor deficits which finally lead to motor palsy and death. This is due to the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal(More)
Parkinsonian patients are treated with dopamine replacement therapy (typically, intermittent administration of the dopamine precursor L-DOPA); however, this is associated with the onset of abnormal involuntary movements, which seriously impair the quality of life. The molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal involuntary movements represent an intense field(More)
Recent literature demonstrated that exposure to excitatory amino acid in specific experimental conditions might produce a defect in the autophagy pathway. Such an effect was observed in motor neurons exposed chronically to glutamate agonists. On the other hand, it is well known that glutamate induces motor neuron death and this is supposed to play a key(More)
Noise is an environmental stressor increasingly more present in modern life and, in particular, in a variety of recreational contexts. The aim of this work is to show the effects of noise on the myocardium and adrenal gland, through a careful review of the literature dealing with the peripheral effects of noise exposure in experimental and clinical studies.(More)
IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured(More)
The effects of training are dependent on complex, adaptive changes which are induced by acute physical exercise at different levels. In particular, evidence shows that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, as well as the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, is mainly involved in mediating the physiological effects of physical exercise. The aim of the(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurogenetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The validation of appropriate animal models is key in fostering SMA research. Recent studies set up an animal model showing long survival and slow disease progression. This model is knocked out for mouse SMN (Smn(-/-)) gene and(More)
The activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has been extensively investigated in a variety of behavioural states. In fact this norepinephrine (NE)-containing nucleus modulates many physiological and pathological conditions including the sleep-waking cycle, movement disorders, mood alterations, convulsive seizures, and the effects of drugs such as(More)
The key role of mitochondria in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is well documented by electron microscopy studies of motor neurons within spinal cord and brainstem. Nonetheless, recent studies challenged the role of mitochondria placed within the cell body of motor neuron. In fact, it was demonstrated that, despite preservation of(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, besides exerting detrimental effects on the upper digestive tract, can also damage the small and large intestine. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, there is evidence that enteric bacteria play a pivotal role. The present study examined the enteroprotective effects of a delayed-release formulation of(More)