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This paper focuses on the energy consumption minimization problem of an optical transport network extending over a very wide area. In particular, the specific problem of power-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PA-RWA) is addressed considering a transparent multi-fiber optical network. An integer linear programming formulation is provided for the(More)
We experimentally show how the virtual private large-area network service (VPLS) technique, a layer 2 service, can improve optical network performance in terms of quality of service (QoS), and how a VPLS network behaves when it adopts all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC), a new optical process that will be introduced in future optical networks. The(More)
In this paper we report the results about power consumption measurements on devices belonging to the access part of a wide geographical network test bed. The access part consists of both xDSL and Passive Optical Network (PON) systems. The results show how energy saving could be a method for returning from the investments for fibre optics installation.
In this work, we illustrate our experiences on activities about monitoring of the User Quality of Services (QoS) measurement campaigns. We show the network architecture that has been implemented to achieve QoS tests on all Italian users. Such a network permits to achieve a detailed investigation on the network causes that induce performance degradation and,(More)
As the data traffic grows in IP networks, some adjustments are needed for making networks suitable for such kind of applications. In particular, packet switching and optical technologies in every network section will improve efficiency and bandwidth availability. Moreover, video applications are going to be predominant with respect to other ones, and IP(More)
OBJECTIVES This retrospective study evaluated the clinical performance and long-term survival of glass-ceramic lithium disilicate all-ceramic restorations in anterior and posterior areas over a 10-year period. METHOD AND MATERIALS Following a consistent protocol over 10 years, 261 lithium disilicate crowns (IPS Empress 2, Ivoclar Vivadent), including 101(More)
The present paper deals with energy saving in IP networks and proposes a distributed energy-aware traffic engineering solution, named DAISIES, for switching off network links according to traffic variations. DAISIES works in a connection-oriented network, e.g. an IP/MPLS network, and follows a routing-based approach, i.e. it acts on the routing algorithm(More)
As the Internet expands in terms of users and exchanged traffic, its energy consumption is becoming a very important issue; in particular, the energy consumption of core networks is expected to be the most critical aspect in coming years. Different strategies and many solutions have been proposed in the last years to improve the energy efficiency of core(More)
—This paper proposes a novel power-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PA-RWA) algorithm to be applied to a transparent wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. The proposed algorithm aims at improving the energy efficiency of the optical network by leaving unused optical fibres as much as possible in order to minimize the number of(More)