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There has been much speculation as to what role balancing selection has played in evolution. In an attempt to identify regions, such as HLA, at which polymorphism has been maintained in the human population for millions of years, we scanned the human genome for regions of high SNP density. We found 16 regions that, outside of HLA and ABO, are the most(More)
The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include(More)
BACKGROUND Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a conservative therapy for patients with Peyronie's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of ESWT in patients with PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS One hundred patients with a history of PD not >12 mo who had not had previous PD-related treatments were enrolled in a prospective,(More)
To compare fosfomycin trometamol (FT) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) for antibiotic prophylaxis in transrectal prostate biopsy (TR-PB). Data for 1109 patients (mean age 66.7 ± 8.45) who underwent TR-PB between March to September 2015 in seven Italian urological institutions were retrospectively reviewed, of which 632 received FT (Group 1) and 477 received CIP(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is the natural ligand for a specific G protein-coupled receptors. In endothelial cells, S1P has been shown to modulate the activity of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation operated by Akt. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric-oxide synthase and eNOS plays a central role in triggering and(More)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with Peyronie's disease. However, erectile dysfunction still persists in many cases. We aimed to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction not previously(More)
INTRODUCTION Although the pathophysiology of the testicular damage associated with varicocele remains unclear, sperm DNA damage has been identified as a potential explanation for this cause of male infertility. The current study was designed to determine the extent of sperm nuclear DNA damage in patients with varicocele, and to examine its relationship with(More)
Proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2), also known as CAKbeta (cell adhesion kinase beta), is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is structurally related to focal adhesion kinase. Pyk2 is expressed in different cell types including brain cells, fibroblasts, platelets, and other hemopoietic cells. Pyk2 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to diverse(More)