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We define two words in a language to be connected if they express similar concepts. The network of connections among the many thousands of words that make up a language is important not only for the study of the structure and evolution of languages, but also for cognitive science. We study this issue quantitatively, by mapping out the conceptual network of(More)
All chromosomes must be completely replicated prior to cell division, a requirement that demands the activation of a sufficient number of appropriately distributed DNA replication origins. Here we investigate how the activity of multiple origins on each chromosome is coordinated to ensure successful replication. We present a stochastic model for whole(More)
We propose a scheme to induce chaos in nonlinear oscillators that either are by themselves incapable of exhibiting chaos or are far away from parameter regions of chaotic behaviors. Our idea is to make use of small, judiciously chosen perturbations in the form of weak periodic signals with time-varying frequency and phase, and to drive the system into a(More)
We present a mathematical model for the spatial dynamics of DNA replication. Using this model we determine the probability distribution for the time at which each chromosomal position is replicated. From this we show, contrary to previous reports, that mean replication time curves cannot be used to directly determine origin parameters. We demonstrate that(More)
Inside the nucleus, DNA replication is organized at discrete sites called replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. Replication factories play important roles in coordinating replication and in responding to replication stress. However, it remains unknown how replicons are organized for processing at each(More)
Eukaryotic genomes are replicated from multiple DNA replication origins. We present complementary deep sequencing approaches to measure origin location and activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Measuring the increase in DNA copy number during a synchronous S-phase allowed the precise determination of genome replication. To map origin locations, replication(More)
We argue that many major features in electronic transport in realistic quantum dots are not explainable by the usual semiclassical approach, due to the contributions of the quantum-mechanical tunneling of the electrons through the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser islands. We show that dynamical tunneling gives rise to a set of resonances characterized by two(More)
Eukaryotic DNA replication is initiated from multiple sites on the chromosome, but little is known about the global and local regulation of replication. We present a mathematical model for the spatial dynamics of DNA replication, which offers insight into the kinetics of replication in different types of organisms. Most biological experiments involve(More)
DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions(More)
We present a novel method for the calculation of the fractal dimension of boundaries in dynamical systems, which is in many cases many orders of magnitude more efficient than the uncertainty method. We call it the output function evaluation (OFE) method. We show analytically that the OFE method is much more efficient than the uncertainty method for(More)
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