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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence of amplifications and deletions using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, and performed gene expression analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies in 22(More)
Transformed, oncogenic precursors, possessing both defining neural-stem-cell properties and the ability to initiate intracerebral tumours, have been identified in human brain cancers. Here we report that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), amongst which BMP4 elicits the strongest effect, trigger a significant reduction in the stem-like, tumour-initiating(More)
OBJECT With recent advances in the adjuvant treatment of malignant brain astrocytomas, it is increasingly debated whether extent of resection affects survival. In this study, the authors investigate this issue after primary and revision resection of these lesions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 1215 patients who underwent(More)
Brain tumors can arise following deregulation of signaling pathways normally activated during brain development and may derive from neural stem cells. Given the requirement for Hedgehog in non-neoplastic stem cells, we investigated whether Hedgehog blockade could target the stem-like population in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We found that Gli1, a key(More)
Sensitive methods are required to record electrical evoked potentials over the visual cortex to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a retinal prosthesis before it can be implanted on the retinal surface of patients afflicted by outer retinal diseases. This study was designed to examine subdural electrodes as a mean to evaluate cortical evoked potentials in(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with malignant brain astrocytomas are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia secondary to frequent corticosteroid administration. Several clinical studies have shown that hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcome in multiple disease states. Furthermore, hyperglycemia augments in vitro astrocytoma growth, whereas hypoglycemia(More)
Reconstruction of white matter tracts based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is currently widely used in clinical research. This reconstruction allows us to identify coordinates of specific white matter tracts and to investigate their anatomy. Fiber reconstruction, however, relies on manual identification of anatomical landmarks of a tract of interest,(More)
INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with several central nervous system (CNS) infections and neoplasms. These opportunistic processes generally occur with advanced immunosuppression, but if an accurate diagnosis is made, effective treatment can frequently be initiated. METHODS In an attempt to assess the safety,(More)
OBJECT Interleukin-12 (IL- 12) has potential for the treatment of tumors because it can stimulate an antitumor immune response and possesses antiangiogenic properties. In the study reported here, the authors investigated the therapeutic role of locally delivered IL-12 in a malignant brain tumor model. METHODS After genetically engineering 9L gliosarcoma(More)
OBJECTIVE It remains unknown whether the extent of surgical resection affects survival or disease progression in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study (n = 170) between 1996 and 2007 at a single institution to determine whether increasing extent of surgical resection was associated with improved(More)