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Cluster analysis is aimed at classifying elements into categories on the basis of their similarity. Its applications range from astronomy to bioinformatics, bibliometrics, and pattern recognition. We propose an approach based on the idea that cluster centers are characterized by a higher density than their neighbors and by a relatively large distance from(More)
We introduce a powerful method for exploring the properties of the multidimensional free energy surfaces (FESs) of complex many-body systems by means of coarse-grained non-Markovian dynamics in the space defined by a few collective coordinates. A characteristic feature of these dynamics is the presence of a history-dependent potential term that, in time,(More)
Trp-cage is a designed 20-residue polypeptide that, in spite of its size, shares several features with larger globular proteins.Although the system has been intensively investigated experimentally and theoretically, its folding mechanism is not yet fully understood. Indeed, some experiments suggest a two-state behavior, while others point to the presence of(More)
Light absorption by the visual pigment rhodopsin leads to vision via a complex signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the ultrafast and highly efficient photoreaction of its chromophore, the retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB). Here, we investigate this reaction in real time by means of unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations of the protein(More)
We develop a new free-energy method, based on the combination of parallel tempering and metadynamics, and apply this method to the calculation of the free-energy landscape of the folding beta hairpin in explicit water. We show that the combined method greatly improves the performance of both parallel tempering and metadynamics. In particular, we are able to(More)
The selection of a proper reaction coordinate is a major bottleneck in simulations of chemical reactions in complex systems. Increasing the number of variables that are used to bias the reaction largely affects the convergence and leads to an unbearable increase in computational price. This problem can be overcome by employing a complex reaction coordinate(More)
The free energy landscape theory has been very successful in rationalizing the folding behaviour of globular proteins, as this representation provides intuitive information on the number of states involved in the folding process, their populations and pathways of interconversion. We extend here this formalism to the case of the Aβ40 peptide, a 40-residue(More)
We study by first-principles molecular dynamics the mechanism of electron hole (positive charge) localization in a laboratory realizable radical cation Z DNA crystal. We find that at room temperature structural deformation does not provide an efficient localization mechanism. Instead, we find evidence for the importance of changes in the protonation state(More)
We apply our recently developed metadynamics method to the docking of ligands on flexible receptors in water solution. This method mimics the real dynamics of a ligand exiting or entering an enzyme and in so doing reconstructs the free energy surface. We apply it to four docking cases: beta-trypsin/benzamidine, beta-trypsin/chlorobenzamidine, immunoglobulin(More)
Recently, we have introduced a new method, metadynamics, which is able to sample rarely occurring transitions and to reconstruct the free energy as a function of several variables with a controlled accuracy. This method has been successfully applied in many different fields, ranging from chemistry to biophysics and ligand docking and from material science(More)