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Trp-cage is a designed 20-residue polypeptide that, in spite of its size, shares several features with larger globular proteins.Although the system has been intensively investigated experimentally and theoretically, its folding mechanism is not yet fully understood. Indeed, some experiments suggest a two-state behavior, while others point to the presence of(More)
We develop a new free-energy method, based on the combination of parallel tempering and metadynamics, and apply this method to the calculation of the free-energy landscape of the folding beta hairpin in explicit water. We show that the combined method greatly improves the performance of both parallel tempering and metadynamics. In particular, we are able to(More)
The post-perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO 3 is believed to be the main mineral phase of the Earth's lowermost mantle (the D 00 00 layer). Its properties explain 1–6 numerous geophysical observations associated with this layer—for example, the D 00 00 discon-tinuity 7 , its topography 8 and seismic anisotropy within the layer 9. Here we use a novel simulation(More)
We apply our recently developed metadynamics method to the docking of ligands on flexible receptors in water solution. This method mimics the real dynamics of a ligand exiting or entering an enzyme and in so doing reconstructs the free energy surface. We apply it to four docking cases: beta-trypsin/benzamidine, beta-trypsin/chlorobenzamidine, immunoglobulin(More)
Polymerization of actin filaments is the primary source of motility in lamellipodia and it is controlled by a variety of regulatory proteins. The underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood and a precise determination of dynamical properties of force generation is necessary. Using optical tweezers, we have measured with millisecond (ms)(More)
Growing networks of actin fibers are able to organize into compact, stiff two-dimensional structures inside lamellipodia of crawling cells. We put forward the hypothesis that the growing actin network is a critically self-organized system, in which long-range mechanical stresses arising from the interaction with the plasma membrane provide the selective(More)
Experimental investigations of the biosynthesis of a number of proteins have pointed out that part of the native structure may be acquired already during translation. We carried out a comprehensive statistical analysis of some average structural properties of proteins that have been put forward as possible signatures of this progressive buildup process.(More)
The use of free-energy landscapes rationalizes a wide range of aspects of protein behavior by providing a clear illustration of the different states accessible to these molecules, as well as of their populations and pathways of interconversion. The determination of the free-energy landscapes of proteins by computational methods is, however, very challenging(More)
It is currently believed that the atlas of existing protein structures is faithfully represented in the Protein Data Bank. However, whether this atlas covers the full universe of all possible protein structures is still a highly debated issue. By using a sophisticated numerical approach, we performed an exhaustive exploration of the conformational space of(More)