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We describe a stereotaxic rat brain MRI template set with a co-registered digital anatomical atlas and illustrate its application to the analysis of a pharmacological MRI (phMRI) study of apomorphine. The template set includes anatomical images and tissue class probability maps for brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These facilitate the use of(More)
Microglia are phagocytic cells that infiltrate the brain during development and have a role in the elimination of synapses during brain maturation. Changes in microglial morphology and gene expression have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it remains unknown whether these changes are a primary cause or a secondary consequence of(More)
Orexins are neuro-modulatory peptides involved in the control of diverse physiological functions through interaction with two receptors, orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R). Recent evidence in pre-clinical models points toward a putative dichotomic role of the two receptors, with OX2R predominantly involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and(More)
Acute administration of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) or ketamine induces symptoms that closely resemble those of schizophrenia in humans, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that a decreased NMDAR function may be a predisposing or even causative factor in schizophrenia. However, the precise neuropharmacological(More)
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serves as a major output of this structure and plays a critical role in the expression of conditioned fear. By combining cell- and tissue-specific pharmacogenetic inhibition with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified circuits downstream of CeA that control fear expression in mice. Selective(More)
RATIONALE Increasing experimental evidence suggests that impaired N-methyl-D: -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor (NMDAr) function could be a key pathophysiological determinant of schizophrenia. Agonists at the allosteric glycine (Gly) binding site of the NMDA complex can promote NMDAr activity, a strategy that could provide therapeutic efficacy for the(More)
Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) methods map the hemodynamic response to drug challenge as a surrogate for changes in neuronal activity. However, the central effects of drugs can be complex and include activity at the primary site of action, downstream effects in other brain regions and direct effects on vasculature and neurovascular coupling. Univariate(More)
Ghrelin (GHR) is an orexigenic gut peptide that interacts with brain ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to promote food intake. Recent research suggests that GHR acts as a modulator of motivated behavior, suggesting a direct influence of GHR on brain reinforcement circuits. In the present studies, we investigated the role of GHR and GHR-Rs in brain reinforcement(More)
We have applied pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) methods to map the functional response to nicotine in drug-naïve rats. Nicotine (0.35 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.)) increased relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in cortical (including medial prefrontal, cingulate orbitofrontal, insular) and subcortical (including amygdala and dorsomedial(More)
Modafinil (MOD) is a wake-promoting drug with pro-cognitive properties. Despite its increasing use, the neuronal substrates of MOD action remain elusive. In particular, animal studies have highlighted a putative role of diencephalic areas as primary neuronal substrate of MOD action, with inconsistent evidence of recruitment of fronto-cortical areas despite(More)