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BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle weakness with loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is one of the main systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The diaphragm is also involved, leading to(More)
Diaphragm motion in forced expiration can be analyzed using M-mode ultrasound in an anterior subcostal approach. Maximum expiratory diaphragmatic excursion (EDEMax) and forced expiratory(More)
AIM Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) of negatively influence the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) and they are related to muscle dysfunction. In this pathway hypogonadism could(More)