Alessandro Caraffa

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Autoimmunity is a failure of self-tolerance resulting in immune reactions against autologous antigen. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by inflammation of synovium associated with destruction of the join cartilage and bone. A role of mast cell-mediated inflammation and antibodies are involved in this disease. Numerous cytokines such as IL-1, TNF, IL-8,(More)
Mast cells are ubiquitous in the body and multifunctional immune cells; they are known to be primary responders in allergic reactions, orchestrating strong responses to minute amounts of allergens. Mature mast cells perform important beneficial roles in host defense, both in IgE-dependent immune responses to certain parasites and in natural immunity to(More)
IL-33, a member of IL-1 family, induces the differentiation of T-cells (depending on the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-kB) and is involved in T-cell mediated immune responses. IL-33 is also involved in the production of IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 and several chemokines. In this editorial we show the importance of IL-33 in allergic diseases and its role as an(More)
Mast cells play an essential role in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, malignancy, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and arthritis, directly interact with bacteria, and appear to play a vital role in host defense against pathogens. Mast cells could be recruited in the inflammatory site, by MCP-1, RANTES and SCF, to(More)
An investigated flavonoid, quercetin, is reviewed in this article. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid found in red wine, grapefruit, onions, apples, black tea, and, in lesser amounts, in leafy green vegetables and beans. Quercetin has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and prevents cancer. Quercitin inhibits the growth of certain malignant cells in(More)
Autism spectrum disorder is of interest neurochemically because it represents a relatively homogeneous disorder with regard to disease development, abnormal cognitive development and intellectual development disturbance. A consistent finding in autistic children is a high number of mast cells and a high level of serotonin which is also found at elevated(More)
Cytokines serve as chemical communicators from one cell to another and most of them have pro-inflammatory activity. Mast cells have been recognised as important mediators of the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation, suggesting a role for IL-33-mediated mast cell activation. IL-33 was recently identified as a ligand for the orphan IL-1 family receptor(More)
Cytokines are immunal regulatory proteins, however they also play a relevant role in inflammatory diseases. IL-31 is a newly discovered cytokine expressed primarily in TH2 cells, introduced by activated CD4+ T cells. IL-31 is capable of inducing chemokines and other cytokines in several inflammatory diseases via its surface receptor. This cytokine is also(More)
Mast cells play a central role in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions and are necessary for allergic reactions. Mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases and appear to be especially important in inflamed tissues, because they infiltrate tissues and produce a variety of cytokines. Mast cells are important for both innate(More)
The activation of monocytes/macrophages by several stimuli is an initial event in the inflammatory response. To ascertain the importance of LTB(4) and 5-lypoxigenase in the inflammatory site, we isolated and stimulated rat adherent granuloma macrophages (RAGMs) with calcium ionophore in the presence or absence of regulated on activation, normal T expressed(More)