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Physically Uncloneable Functions (PUFs) [28] are noisy physical sources of randomness. As such, they are naturally appealing for cryptographic applications, and have caught the interest of both the-oreticians and practitioners. A major step towards understanding and securely using PUFs was recently taken in [Crypto 2011] where Brzuska, Fischlin, Schröder(More)
In this work, we study simultaneously resettable arguments of knowledge. As our main result, we show a construction of a constant-round simultaneously resettable witness-indistinguishable argument of knowledge (simresWIAoK, for short) for any NP language. We also show two applications of simresWIAoK: the first constant-round simultaneously resettable(More)
In this study we investigated the effects of type I and II mGlu receptors ligands in glycine extracellular concentrations at the periaqueductal gray (PAG) level by using in vivo microdialysis, in conscious rats. An agonist of type I mGlu receptors, (S)-3,5-DHPG (1 and 5 mM), but not a selective agonist for mGlu5 receptors, CHPG (3 and 5 mM), was noticed to(More)
We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler, that transforms any ideal straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [Can01]. We exemplify the usefulness of our compiler providing two (constant-round) instantiations of ideal straight-line extractable(More)
Contrary to prior belief, we show that there exist commitment, zero-knowledge and general function evaluation protocols with universally composable security, in a model where all parties and all protocols have access to a single, global, random oracle and no other trusted setup. This model provides significantly stronger composable security guarantees than(More)
Yao's garbled circuit construction is a very fundamental result in cryptography and recent efficiency optimizations have brought it much closer to practice. However these constructions work only for circuits and garbling a RAM program involves the inefficient process of first converting it into a circuit. Towards the goal of avoiding this inefficiency, Lu(More)
In [DNRS99, DNRS03], Dwork et al. opened the fundamental question of existence of commitment schemes that are secure against selective opening attacks (SOA, for short). In [BHY09] Bellare, Hofheinz, and Yilek, and Hofheinz in [Hof11] solved this problem positively by presenting a scheme which is based on non-black-box use of a one-way permutation and which(More)
In this paper we revisit previous work in the BPK model and point out subtle problems concerning security proofs of concurrent and resettable zero knowledge (cZK and rZK, for short). Our analysis shows that the cZK and rZK simulations proposed for previous (in particular all round-optimal) protocols are distinguishable from real executions. Therefore some(More)
Motivated by theoretical and practical interest, the challenging task of designing cryptographic protocols having only black-box access to primitives has generated various breakthroughs in the last decade. Despite such positive results, even though nowadays we know black-box constructions for secure two-party and multi-party computation even in constant(More)
In [Eurocrypt 2004] Katz and Ostrovsky establish the exact round complexity of secure two-party computation with respect to black-box proofs of security. They prove that 5 rounds are necessary for secure two-party protocols (4-round are sufficient if only one party receives the output) and provide a protocol that matches such lower bound. The main challenge(More)