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The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer that protects the cell from toxic molecules. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of the OM in most gram-negative bacteria, and its structure and biosynthesis are well known. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of transport and assembly of this molecule in the OM are(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of bacterial pneumonia, and it is also responsible for otitis media and meningitis in children. Apart from the capsule, the virulence factors of this pathogen are not completely understood. Recent technical advances in the field of bacterial pathogenesis (in vivo expression technology and signature-tagged(More)
The Escherichia coli msbA gene, first identified as a multicopy suppressor of htrB mutations, has been proposed to transport nascent core-lipid A molecules across the inner membrane (Polissi, A., and Georgopoulos, C. (1996) Mol. Microbiol. 20, 1221-1233). msbA is an essential E. coli gene with high sequence similarity to mammalian Mdr proteins and certain(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of the outer membrane (OM) in most gram-negative bacteria, and its structure and biosynthetic pathway are well known. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of transport and assembly of this molecule at the cell surface are poorly understood. The inner membrane (IM) transport protein MsbA is responsible for flipping(More)
The meta-cleavage operon of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida contains 13 genes responsible for the oxidation of benzoate and toluates to Krebs cycle intermediates via estradiol (meta) cleavage of (methyl)catechol. The functions of all the genes are known with the exception of xylT. We constructed pWW0 mutants defective in the xylT gene, and found(More)
The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria consists of two distinct membranes, the inner (IM) and the outer membrane (OM) separated by the periplasm. The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex lipid with important biological activities. In the host it elicits the innate immune response whereas in the bacterium it is(More)
The public availability of numerous microbial genomes is enabling the analysis of bacterial biology in great detail and with an unprecedented, organism-wide and taxon-wide, broad scope. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important bacterial pathogens throughout the world. We present here sequences and functional annotations for 2.1-Mbp of(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport protein A (LptA) is an essential periplasmic localized transport protein that has been implicated together with MsbA, LptB, and the Imp/RlpB complex in LPS transport from the inner membrane to the outer membrane, thereby contributing to building the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria and maintaining its integrity.(More)
In Escherichia coli and most Gram-negative bacteria, KDO (3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate), a component of the lipopolysaccharide inner core, is essential for outer membrane biogenesis and cell viability. Two recently identified genes involved in KDO biosynthesis, kdsD and kdsC, belong to the yrbG-yhbG locus where four additional ORFs (yrbG, yrbK, yhbN and(More)
Upon cold shock Escherichia coli transiently stops growing and adapts to the new temperature (acclimatization phase). The major physiological effects of cold temperature are a decrease in membrane fluidity and the stabilization of secondary structures of RNA and DNA, which may affect the efficiencies of translation, transcription, and replication. Specific(More)