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OBJECTIVE To assess the clinical response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade and in vitro IL-1beta and IL-18 secretion in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS Twenty-two patients with systemic-onset JIA were treated with the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) anakinra. Monocytes from 18 patients and 20 healthy donors were(More)
IL-1beta and IL-18 are crucial mediators of inflammation, and a defective control of their release may cause serious diseases. Yet, the mechanisms regulating IL-1beta and IL-18 secretion are partially undefined. Both cytokines are produced as inactive cytoplasmic precursors. Processing to the active form is mediated by caspase-1, which is in turn activated(More)
The mechanism of neurodegeneration caused by beta-amyloid in Alzheimer disease is controversial. Neuronal toxicity is exerted mostly by various species of soluble beta-amyloid oligomers that differ in their N- and C-terminal domains. However, abundant accumulation of beta-amyloid also occurs in the brains of cognitively normal elderly people, in the absence(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulation in the brain of small aggregates of amyloid beta-protein 42 (Abeta42) is the major pathogenic event of Alzheimer disease (AD). In familial early-onset AD this event is likely the result of Abeta42 overproduction; in the most common sporadic late-onset form of the disease the mechanisms of Abeta42 accumulation are unknown. METHODS(More)
Water-soluble amyloid-beta (wsAbeta) is present in cerebral cortex of subjects at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as in normal elderly subjects as a mixture of three major amyloid-beta (Abeta) species: 1-42, py3-42 and py11-42. The three wsAbeta species are nondetectable in brains of young people, free of immunohistochemically detectable amyloid(More)
Synapsin III (SynIII) is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays a unique role in neuronal development. SynIII is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at a highly conserved phosphorylation site and by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) at a newly described site. Although SynIII is known to be involved in axon elongation in vitro, the role(More)
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, up-regulates expression of the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE-1), an aspartyl protease responsible for the beta-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (AbetaPP), and results in increased levels of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide. The mechanisms underlying this remain unclear but(More)
We have characterized the interaction between apolipoprotein E (apoE) and amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in the soluble fraction of the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control subjects. Western blot analysis with specific antibodies identified in both groups a complex composed of the full-length apoE and Abeta peptides ending at residues 40(More)
Synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, play a crucial role in the intestinal inflammation that characterizes Crohn's disease. Mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are associated with an increased risk of Crohn's disease. Although it is known that NOD2 mediates cytokine responses to muramyl(More)
The proteolysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) requires neprylisin, an enzyme that has been shown as reduced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether a decrease in neprilysin levels contributes to the accumulation of amyloid deposits not only in AD but also in the normal aging. We analyzed neprilysin mRNA and protein levels in cerebral cortex from 10(More)