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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Bacterial genomes contain 250 to 500 essential genes, as suggested by single gene disruptions and theoretical considerations. If this view is correct, the remaining nonessential genes of an organism, such as Bacillus subtilis, have been acquired during evolution in its perpetually changing ecological niches. Notably, approximately 47% of the approximately(More)
NAD is an important cofactor and essential molecule in all living organisms. In many eubacteria, including several pathogens, the first two steps in the de novo synthesis of NAD are catalyzed by l-aspartate oxidase (NadB) and quinolinate synthase (NadA). Despite the important role played by these two enzymes in NAD metabolism, many of their biochemical and(More)
The nucleotide (nt) sequence of 13.6 kb of the outG locus of Bacillus subtilis, which maps at approximately 155 degrees between the genetic markers nrdA and polC, was determined. One putative coding sequence was identified corresponding to a large polypeptide of 4427 amino acids (aa). Structural organization at the nt and aa sequence level and extensive(More)
In the course of the Bacillus subtilis genome sequencing project, an ORF called yshD was identified, and its product was classified as a mismatch repair protein. Further analysis of the YshD primary sequence showed that the protein belongs to the MutS2 protein family, sharing a high degree of identity with the Thermootoga Inaritima protein TM1278 (34%) and(More)
Plant vacuoles play several roles in controlling development, pathogen defence, and stress response. γVPE is a vacuolarlocalised cysteine protease with a caspase-1 like activity involved in the activation and maturation of downstream vacuolar hydrolytic enzymes that trigger hypersensitive cell death and tissue senescence. This work provides evidence that(More)
Using lacl-Z fusion strains of Escherichia coli we have devised systems that detect deletions of varying lengths. We examined deletions 700-1000 base pairs long, and genetically characterized over 250 spontaneous deletions. Of these, we analyzed 24 by direct DNA sequencing and 18 by inspection of restriction fragment patterns. Deletions of this size occur(More)
BACKGROUND We previously demonstrated that the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB60 protein is an R2R3MYB transcription factor required for stomatal opening. AtMYB60 is specifically expressed in guard cells and down-regulated at the transcriptional levels by the phytohormone ABA. RESULTS To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing AtMYB60 expression, its(More)