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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Using lacl-Z fusion strains of Escherichia coli we have devised systems that detect deletions of varying lengths. We examined deletions 700-1000 base pairs long, and genetically characterized over 250 spontaneous deletions. Of these, we analyzed 24 by direct DNA sequencing and 18 by inspection of restriction fragment patterns. Deletions of this size occur(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Bacterial genomes contain 250 to 500 essential genes, as suggested by single gene disruptions and theoretical considerations. If this view is correct, the remaining nonessential genes of an organism, such as Bacillus subtilis, have been acquired during evolution in its perpetually changing ecological niches. Notably, approximately 47% of the approximately(More)
Using a lacI-Z fusion system, we have determined the efficiency of suppression of nonsense codons in the I gene of Escherichia coli by assaying beta-galactosidase activity. We examined the efficiency of four amber suppressors acting on 42 different amber (UAG) codons at known positions in the I gene, and the efficiency of a UAG suppressor at 14 different(More)
We selected the PnpI/PupG (PNP) with specificity for ribo- and deoxyriboguanosine and ribo- and deoxyriboinosine and the Up/Pdp (UP) with specificity for uridine, thymidine, and deoxyuridine from the purine and pyrimidine salvage pathway of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Then, an extensive study of the UP (uridine phosphorylase) and PNP(More)
NAD is an important cofactor and essential molecule in all living organisms. In many eubacteria, including several pathogens, the first two steps in the de novo synthesis of NAD are catalyzed by l-aspartate oxidase (NadB) and quinolinate synthase (NadA). Despite the important role played by these two enzymes in NAD metabolism, many of their biochemical and(More)
In this study a comparative analysis of iron molecules during aging was performed in locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and related disorders. LC and SN neurons, especially the SN pars compacta, degenerate in PD and other forms of parkinsonism. Iron and its major molecular forms, such as ferritin and(More)
The nucleotide (nt) sequence of 13.6 kb of the outG locus of Bacillus subtilis, which maps at approximately 155 degrees between the genetic markers nrdA and polC, was determined. One putative coding sequence was identified corresponding to a large polypeptide of 4427 amino acids (aa). Structural organization at the nt and aa sequence level and extensive(More)