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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Bacterial genomes contain 250 to 500 essential genes, as suggested by single gene disruptions and theoretical considerations. If this view is correct, the remaining nonessential genes of an organism, such as Bacillus subtilis, have been acquired during evolution in its perpetually changing ecological niches. Notably, approximately 47% of the approximately(More)
Plant vacuoles play several roles in controlling development, pathogen defence, and stress response. γVPE is a vacuolarlocalised cysteine protease with a caspase-1 like activity involved in the activation and maturation of downstream vacuolar hydrolytic enzymes that trigger hypersensitive cell death and tissue senescence. This work provides evidence that(More)
Using lacl-Z fusion strains of Escherichia coli we have devised systems that detect deletions of varying lengths. We examined deletions 700-1000 base pairs long, and genetically characterized over 250 spontaneous deletions. Of these, we analyzed 24 by direct DNA sequencing and 18 by inspection of restriction fragment patterns. Deletions of this size occur(More)
BACKGROUND We previously demonstrated that the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB60 protein is an R2R3MYB transcription factor required for stomatal opening. AtMYB60 is specifically expressed in guard cells and down-regulated at the transcriptional levels by the phytohormone ABA. RESULTS To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing AtMYB60 expression, its(More)
To evaluate the role of estrogen receptor in the differentiation of cells of neural origin, we developed a molecular approach aimed at the identification of estrogen target genes by mRNA differential display PCR (ddPCR) in human neuroblastoma SK-ER3 cells. More than 3000 RNAs were examined, a few of which displayed a differential regulation pattern in(More)
The first genetic, in vivo, and in vitro evidences that YrxA is the regulator of NAD de novo biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis are hereby reported. The protein is essential to the transcription repression of the divergent operons nadBCA and nifS-yrxA in the presence of nicotinic acid and binds to their shared operator-promoter region.
Ferritin is a protein of 24 subunits which assemble into a shell with 432 point symmetry. It can be denatured reversibly in acidic guanidine hydrochloride, with the formation of poorly populated renaturation intermediates. In order to increase the accumulation of intermediates and to study the mechanism of ferritin renaturation, we analysed variants of the(More)