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The discovery of a nonphotosynthetic plastid in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites has sparked a contentious debate about its evolutionary origin. Molecular data have led to conflicting conclusions supporting either its green algal origin or red algal origin, perhaps in common with the plastid of related dinoflagellates. This distinction is critical(More)
Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease, with an increasing incidence of two million cases per year and 350 million people from 88 countries at risk. The causative agents are species of Leishmania, a protozoan flagellate. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated, is caused by species of the(More)
Diatoms dominate the biomass of phytoplankton in nutrient-rich conditions and form the basis of some of the world's most productive marine food webs. The diatom nuclear genome contains genes with bacterial and plastid origins as well as genes of the secondary endosymbiotic host (the exosymbiont), yet little is known about the relative contribution of each(More)
Understanding the early evolution and diversification of eukaryotes relies on a fully resolved phylogenetic tree. In recent years, most eukaryotic diversity has been assigned to six putative supergroups, but the evolutionary origin of a few major "orphan" lineages remains elusive. Two ecologically important orphan groups are the heterotrophic Telonemia and(More)
BACKGROUND Photosynthetic eukaryotes with a secondary plastid of red algal origin (cryptophytes, haptophytes, stramenopiles, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans) are hypothesized to share a single origin of plastid acquisition according to Chromalveolate hypothesis. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that photosynthetic "chromalveolates" form a large clade(More)
Colomban de Vargas,*† Stéphane Audic,† Nicolas Henry,† Johan Decelle,† Frédéric Mahé,† Ramiro Logares, Enrique Lara, Cédric Berney, Noan Le Bescot, Ian Probert, Margaux Carmichael, Julie Poulain, Sarah Romac, Sébastien Colin, Jean-Marc Aury, Lucie Bittner, Samuel Chaffron, Micah Dunthorn, Stefan Engelen, Olga Flegontova, Lionel Guidi, Aleš Horák, Olivier(More)
The analysis of 26 new small subunit rRNA sequences obtained from helminths that primarily parasitize fishes sampled from five continents provided well-supported trees, allowing us to study the phylogenetic relationships among spirurid nematodes. The analyses have shown that Dracunculoidea is a paraphyletic taxon and Anguillicolidae and Gnathostomatidae(More)
Abstract: Small subunit rRNA sequences were obtained from 38 representatives mainly of the nematode orders Spirurida (Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Daniconematidae, Philometridae, Physalopteridae, Rhabdochonidae, Skrjabillanidae) and, in part, Ascaridida (Anisakidae, Cucullanidae, Quimperiidae). The examined nematodes are predominantly parasites of fishes.(More)
Flagellates of the Leishmania donovani complex are causative agents of human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The complex is comprised of L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania archibaldi, although the latter is not now considered to be a valid species. Morphological distinction of Leishmania species is impractical, so biochemical,(More)
In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of(More)