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trans-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde implicated in the pathology of multiple diseases involving oxidative damage. Oxidation of HNE by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNEA) is a major route of metabolism in many organisms. HNE exists as two enantiomers, (R)-HNE and (S)-HNE, and in(More)
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