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The PAX6 gene, a key regulator of eye development, produces two major proteins that differ in paired domain structure: PAX6 and PAX6(5a). It is known that an increase in the PAX6(5a) to PAX6 ratio leads to multiple ocular defects in humans. Here, transgenic mice were created that overexpress human PAX6(5a) in the lens. These mice develop cataracts with(More)
During development of the anterior eye segment, cells that originate from the surface epithelium or the neuroepithelium need to interact with mesenchymal cells, which predominantly originate from the neural crest. Failures of proper interaction result in a complex of developmental disorders such Peters' anomaly, Axenfeld-Rieger's syndrome or aniridia. Here(More)
Recent genetic analysis of the Drosophila dachshund (dac) gene has established that dac encodes a novel nuclear protein that is involved in both eye and leg development. In the Drosophila eye, dac expression appears to be controlled by the product of the eyeless/Pax6 gene. In order to analyze the Pax6 pathway in vertebrates we have isolated and(More)
Throughout the developing central nervous system, pre-patterning of the ventricular zone into discrete neural progenitor domains is one of the predominant strategies used to produce neuronal diversity in a spatially coordinated manner. In the retina, neurogenesis proceeds in an intricate chronological and spatial sequence, yet it remains unclear whether(More)
The eye lens is an encapsulated avascular organ whose function is to focus light on the retina. Lens comprises a single progenitor cell lineage in multiple states of differentiation. Disruption of lens function leading to protein aggregation and opacity results in age-onset cataract. Cataract is a complex disease involving genetic and environmental factors.(More)
Two cis-acting promoter elements (-108 to -100 and -49 to -33) of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene, which is highly expressed in the ocular lens, were studied. Here we show that DE1 (-108 to -100; 5'TGACGGTG3'), which resembles the consensus cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element sequence (CRE; 5'TGACGT[A/C][A/G]3'), behaves like a functional CRE site.(More)
The Dachshund proteins are essential components of a regulatory network controlling cell fate determination. They have been implicated in eye, limb, brain, and muscle development. These proteins cannot be assigned to any recognizable structural or functional class based on amino acid sequence analysis. The 1.65 A crystal structure of the most conserved(More)
The abundance of crystallins (> 80% of the soluble protein) in the ocular lens provides advantageous markers for selective gene expression during cellular differentiation. Here we show by functional and protein-DNA binding experiments that the chicken alpha A-crystallin gene is regulated by at least five control elements located at sites A (-148 to -139), B(More)
Mammalian alphaB-crystallin is highly expressed both in lens epithelium and lens fibers. In contrast, gammaF-crystallin is highly expressed in the lens fiber cells. Crystallin gene expression in lens is regulated at the level of transcription by a sparse number of specific DNA-binding transcription factors. Here, we report studies on transcriptional(More)
PURPOSE Extensive literature shows that Pax-6 is critical for lens development and that Paxb mutations can result in aniridia in humans. In addition, it has been reported that truncated Pax-6 molecules can act as dominant-negative repressors of wild-type Pax-6 activity in cultured cells. This study was designed to determine whether Pax-6 molecules without(More)