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The inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway, which often occurs through mutations in TP53 (encoding tumor protein 53) is a common step in human cancer. However, in melanoma-a highly chemotherapy-resistant disease-TP53 mutations are rare, raising the possibility that this cancer uses alternative ways to overcome p53-mediated tumor suppression. Here(More)
MDM2 is a key regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor acting primarily as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote its degradation. MDM2 also inhibits p53 transcriptional activity by recruiting histone deacetylase and corepressors to p53. Here, we show that immunopurified MDM2 complexes have significant histone H3-K9 methyltransferase activity. The histone(More)
Biochemical studies have suggested conflicting roles for the E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1 (Cop1; also known as Rfwd2) in tumorigenesis, providing evidence for both the oncoprotein c-Jun and the tumor suppressor p53 as its targets. Here we present what we believe to be the first in vivo investigation of the role of Cop1 in(More)
Many p53 missense mutations possess dominant-negative activity and oncogenic gain of function. We report that for structurally destabilized p53 mutants, these effects result from mutant-induced coaggregation of wild-type p53 and its paralogs p63 and p73, thereby also inducing a heat-shock response. Aggregation of mutant p53 resulted from self-assembly of a(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a central role in breast cancer development and progression, but the mechanisms that control its expression are poorly understood. Breast cancer tissue microarrays revealed an inverse correlation between the Forkhead transcription factor Forkhead box class O (FOXO)3a and VEGF expression. Using the(More)
UNLABELLED Senescence induction contributes to cancer therapy responses and is crucial for p53-mediated tumor suppression. However, whether p53 inactivation actively suppresses senescence induction has been unclear. Here, we show that E2F1 overexpression, due to p53 or p21 inactivation, promotes expression of human oncoprotein CIP2A, which in turn, by(More)
There is growing evidence that the p53 tumour suppressor downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Here we provide insights from in vitro experiments and in vivo xenotransplantation assays that highlight a dual role for p53 in regulating VEGF during hypoxia.(More)
Nucleostemin (NS), a nucleolar GTPase, is highly expressed in stem/progenitor cells and in most cancer cells. However, little is known about the regulation of its expression. Here, we identify the NS gene as a novel direct transcriptional target of the c-Myc oncoprotein. We show that Myc overexpression enhances NS transcription in cultured cells and in(More)
This chapter describes methods for studying downstream events of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, focusing on the FoxO transcription factors. These approaches also represent alternative means for gauging the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt activity. We describe protocols for the fractionation of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein extracts and for studying(More)
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