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RAF kinases regulate cell proliferation and survival and can be dysregulated in tumors. The role of RAF in cell proliferation has been linked to its ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (ERK). Here we identify a MEK-independent role for RAF in tumor growth. Specifically, in mitotic cells,(More)
Although integrin αvβ3 is linked to cancer progression, its role in epithelial development is unclear. Here, we show that αvβ3 plays a critical role in adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) during pregnancy. Whereas αvβ3 is a luminal progenitor marker in the virgin gland, we noted increased αvβ3 expression in MaSCs at midpregnancy. Accordingly, mice lacking αvβ3(More)
Tumour cells, with stem-like properties, are highly aggressive and often show drug resistance. Here, we reveal that integrin α(v)β₃ serves as a marker of breast, lung and pancreatic carcinomas with stem-like properties that are highly resistant to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib. This was observed in vitro and in mice bearing(More)
Cancer development is a multistep process, driven by a series of genetic and environmental alterations, that endows cells with a set of hallmark traits required for tumorigenesis. It is broadly accepted that growth signal autonomy, the first hallmark of malignancies, can be acquired through multiple genetic mutations that activate an array of complex,(More)
Overexpression of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is a recurrent theme in human cancer and is thought to cause aggressive phenotypes and resistance to standard therapy. There has, thus, been a concerted effort in identifying EGFR gene mutations to explain misregulation of EGFR expression as well as differential sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs. However, such genetic(More)
Protein synthesis involves the translation of ribonucleic acid information into proteins, the building blocks of life. The initial step of protein synthesis is the binding of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the 7-methylguanosine (m(7)-GpppG) 5' cap of messenger RNAs. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) represses cap-mediated translation(More)
Bi-allelic-inactivating mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene are found in the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (VHL(-/-) RCC). VHL(-/-) RCC cells overproduce hypoxia-inducible genes as a consequence of constitutive, oxygen-independent activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). While HIF activation explains the highly vascularized nature(More)
Malignancy is a manifestation of acquired defects in regulatory circuits that direct normal cell proliferation and homeostasis. Most of these circuits operate through cell autonomous pathways, whereas others potentially involve the neighboring microenvironment. We report that the metalloprotease ADAM17 plays a pivotal role in several acquired tumor cell(More)
Inactivating mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene are associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (VHL-/- RCC), the most frequent malignancy of the human kidney. The VHL protein targets the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for ubiquitination and degradation. VHL-/- RCC cells fail to degrade(More)