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We have developed and validated a methodology for determining the antibody composition of the polyclonal serum response after immunization. Pepsin-digested serum IgGs were subjected to standard antigen-affinity chromatography, and resulting elution, wash, and flow-through fractions were analyzed by bottom-up, liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem(More)
A challenge in the computational design of enzymes is that multiple properties, including substrate binding, transition state stabilization and product release, must be simultaneously optimized, and this has limited the absolute activity of successful designs. Here, we focus on a single critical property of many enzymes: the nucleophilicity of an active(More)
Reengineering protein surfaces to exhibit high net charge, referred to as "supercharging", can improve reversibility of unfolding by preventing aggregation of partially unfolded states. Incorporation of charged side chains should be optimized while considering structural and energetic consequences, as numerous mutations and accumulation of like-charges can(More)
Biosensors incorporating proteins as molecular recognition elements for analytes are used in clinical diagnostics, as biological research tools, and to detect chemical threats and pollutants. This work describes the application of protein engineering techniques to address three aspects in the design of protein-based biosensors; the transduction of binding(More)
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