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Analysis of Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogen diversity revealed that 3ADON producing Fusarium graminearum are prevalent in North America and identified significant population structure associated with trichothecene chemotype differences (F(ST)>0.285; P<0.001). In addition, we identified a trichothecene chemotype cline in Canada and documented a recent(More)
Until around 1990, most multigene families were thought to be subject to concerted evolution, in which all member genes of a family evolve as a unit in concert. However, phylogenetic analysis of MHC and other immune system genes showed a quite different evolutionary pattern, and a new model called birth-and-death evolution was proposed. In this model, new(More)
Animal venom components are of considerable interest to researchers across a wide variety of disciplines, including molecular biology, biochemistry, medicine, and evolutionary genetics. The three-finger family of snake venom peptides is a particularly interesting and biochemically complex group of venom peptides, because they are encoded by a large(More)
Nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial control region were used from a phylogenetic context to investigate the long-term history of a population of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). In addition, the coalescence time of these sequences was used to estimate the age of the inferred patterns of population size change. The results indicate that(More)
Mate finding in most moth species involves long-distance signaling via female-emitted sex pheromones. There is a great diversity of pheromone structures used throughout the Lepidoptera, even among closely related species. The conundrum is how signal divergence has occurred. With strong normalizing selection pressure on blend composition and response(More)
The utility of microsatellites for managing captive Tursiops truncatus was investigated. Specifically the level of genetic diversity among the loci examined and their usefulness for resolving paternity was assessed. Overall a relatively low level of genetic variation was found among captive dolphins. In addition, a high percentage of common alleles was(More)
Microbial ecologists and systematists are challenged to discover the early ecological changes that drive the splitting of one bacterial population into two ecologically distinct populations. We have aimed to identify newly divergent lineages ("ecotypes") bearing the dynamic properties attributed to species, with the rationale that discovering their(More)
Insertion analysis of short and long interspersed elements is a powerful method for phylogenetic inference. In a previous study of short interspersed element data, it was found that cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants form a monophyletic group. To further resolve the relationships among these taxa, we now have isolated and characterized 10 additional(More)
The central questions of bacterial ecology and evolution require a method to consistently demarcate, from the vast and diverse set of bacterial cells within a natural community, the groups playing ecologically distinct roles (ecotypes). Because of a lack of theory-based guidelines, current methods in bacterial systematics fail to divide the bacterial domain(More)
A great diversity of pheromone structures are used by moth species (Insecta: Lepidoptera) for long-distance mating signals. The signal/response channel seems to be narrow for each species, and a major conundrum is how signal divergence has occurred in the face of strong selection pressures against small changes in the signal. Observations of various closely(More)