Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas

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Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia and especially Leishmania braziliensis are responsible for a large proportion of New World leishmaniasis cases. The reproductive mode of Leishmania species has often been assumed to be predominantly clonal, but remains unsettled. We have investigated the genetic polymorphism at 12 microsatellite loci on 124 human(More)
Plasmodium vivax causes 25-40% of malaria cases worldwide, yet research on this human malaria parasite has been neglected. Nevertheless, the recent publication of the P. vivax reference genome now allows genomics and systems biology approaches to be applied to this pathogen. We show here that whole-genome analysis of the parasite can be achieved directly(More)
The principal agent of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is the South American protozoan parasite Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. This organism is generally considered to be clonal, that is, it does not to undergo genetic exchange. Nevertheless, apparent hybrids between several Leishmania species have been reported in the New World and the Old World.(More)
PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of heat shock protein 70 genes discriminates most neotropical Leishmania species, as well as Trypanosoma cruzi. The assay, combined with capillary electrophoresis in a microchip device, may be applied directly on clinical samples with a high sensitivity, hence supporting clinical and epidemiological(More)
Oligonucleotide primers directed to the minicircle kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania strains supported enzymatic amplification of this DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single product of 70 basepairs was obtained from parasites belonging exclusively to the L. braziliensis complex. Direct sequencing of the amplified product confirmed its minicircle(More)
Treatment failures for leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimonate, are increasingly common in many endemic areas. Imiquimod (Aldara; 3M Pharmaceuticals) is a novel immune response-activating compound, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, that is currently used to treat cervical warts and has been shown(More)
The role of environmental risk factors in clinical malaria has been studied mainly in Africa and Asia, few investigations have been carried out in Latin America. Field observations in northern coastal Peru, where the prevalence of malaria is high during the agricultural season, suggested that the risk of disease varied according to the characteristics of(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bartonellosis and selected climatic factors during the time periods 1983-1988 and 1995-99, which included two events of the El Niño phenomenon (1986-88, 1997-98), and to identify a reliable climate parameter to be used as an alert indicator for bartonellosis outbreaks in Ancash. The study site(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical effectiveness of previous regimens to treat Plasmodium vivax infection have been hampered by compliance. We aimed to assess the dose-response, safety, and tolerability of single-dose tafenoquine plus 3-day chloroquine for P vivax malaria radical cure. METHODS In this double-blind, randomised, dose-ranging phase 2b study, men and women(More)
BACKGROUND Antimonials are the first drug of choice for the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL); however, their efficacy is not predictable, and this may be linked to parasite drug resistance. We aimed to characterize the in vitro antimony susceptibility of clinical isolates of Peruvian patients with ATL who were treated with sodium(More)