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Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the(More)
We derive a new formula for the number of factorizations of a full cycle into an ordered product of two permutations of given cycle types. For the first time, a purely combinatorial argument involving a bijective description of bicolored maps of specified vertex degree distribution is used. All the previous results in the field rely either partially or(More)
BACKGROUND This prospective study evaluated the technical aspects and microbiological consequences of laparoscopic resection with transanal specimen extraction and per ano transcolonic stapler anvil insertion in patients requiring elective operation for previous diverticulitis. METHODS Laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy was performed with three ports, and(More)
(this article cites 28 articles hosted on the Citations use or unauthorized distribution. Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example(More)
We evaluate combinatorially certain connection coefficients of the symmetric group that count the number of factorizations of a long cycle as a product of three permutations. Such factorizations admit an important topological interpretation in terms of unicellular constellations on orientable surfaces. Algebraic computation of these coefficients was first(More)
A clinicopathologic study of five patients with Paget's disease of the jaws is reported. All patients had well-documented cases of osteitis deformans with polyostotic involvement. Histologic studies of facial bones could be performed because surgery was necessary for either cosmetic or functional reasons. Three specimens consisted of maxillary bone, and two(More)
Microbial bioconversion of sterols into high value steroid precursors, such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD), is an industrial challenge. Genes and enzymes involved in sterol degradation have been proposed, although the complete pathway is not yet known. The genome sequencing of the AD producer strain 'Mycobacterium neoaurum' NRRL B-3805 (formerly(More)
We study the factorizations of the permutation (1, 2,. .. , n) into k factors of given cycle types. Using representation theory, Jackson obtained for each k an elegant formula for counting these factorizations according to the number of cycles of each factor. In the cases k = 2, 3 Schaeffer and Vassilieva gave a combinatorial proof of Jackson's formula, and(More)
Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of(More)
The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Abstract We study the mixing properties of permutations obtained as a product of two uniformly random permutations of fixed cycle types. For instance, we give an exact formula for the probability that elements 1, 2,. .. , k are in distinct(More)